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Medicine, Uruguay

Van den Brom R.,Animal Health Service | Moll L.,Animal Health Service | van Schaik G.,Epidemiology Group | Vellema P.,Animal Health Service
Preventive Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2013

At the end of 2007, the first year of what later turned out to be one of the largest Q fever outbreaks in the world with ultimately almost 3500 human patients notified in three years time, dairy goats were suspected to be the possible cause. However, current information on the Q fever prevalence in small ruminants in The Netherlands was lacking.A serological survey, using an indirect ELISA, was carried out in 15,186 sheep and goats in The Netherlands in 2008. In total, 2.4% (95% CI: 2.2-2.7) of the sheep and 7.8% (95% CI: 6.9-8.8) of the goats was seropositive for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. In 14.5% (95% CI: 12.5-16.5) of the sheep flocks and 17.9% (95% CI: 14.2-21.5) of the goat herds at least one seropositive animal was found. In sheep flocks with at least one seropositive sheep, the within herd seroprevalence was 14.8% (95% CI: 12.6-17.0). In goat herds with at least one seropositive goat, the within herd seroprevalence was 29.0% (95% CI: 24.6-33.3).The seropositive sheep were equally distributed across the country. The seroprevalence in goats in the south-eastern part of The Netherlands, the area where most of the human Q fever cases were notified, was significantly higher than the seroprevalence in goats in the rest of The Netherlands. Dairy sheep and dairy goats had a significantly higher chance of being seropositive than non-dairy sheep and goats. During pregnancy and in the periparturient period, small ruminants tested significantly more often seropositive than in the early- or non-pregnant period.The seroprevalence as well as the true prevalence among small ruminants in The Netherlands were lower than prevalences reported elsewhere. The seroprevalence among sheep was also lower than reported in an earlier Dutch study in 1987. The Q fever seroprevalence was highest in pregnant and periparturient dairy goats in the south-eastern part of The Netherlands, which coincides with the region with the highest human incidence of Q fever. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

Rolim D.B.,University of Fortaleza | Vilar D.C.F.L.,Epidemiology Group | De Goes Cavalcanti L.P.,Federal University of Ceara | Freitas L.B.N.,Federal University of Ceara | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2011

A seroepidemiological investigation was conducted among the population of two municipalities in Northeastern Brazil. Immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG antibodies to Burkholderia pseudomallei were positive in 51.27% (161 in 317 samples) and 58.49% (186), respectively. IgM titers were higher in children than in adults. On the contrary, IgG increased progressively with age. We observed a significant association between agricultural occupation and raised IgM titers (P < 0.005) and IgG titers (P < 0.001), and between construction workers and raised IgG titers (P = 0.005). Antibody IgG avidities did not correlate with age. The highest titers of antibodies (1/800) showed the highest antibody avidity indexes (P < 0.01). Most of the serum samples recognized 45-kDa and 200-kDa bands by IgG1 and IgG2 subclasses. Our study showed a high seropositivity among individuals living in endemic regions of the state of Ceara´, and highlights the need for further surveillance close to water courses such as dams and rivers in Northeastern Brazil. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Source

The role of meat in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (ESCC) has been considered conflictive. For this reason, we decided to conduct a case-control study on meat consumption and ESCC. Data included 234 newly diagnosed and microscopically examined ESCC and 2,020 controls with conditions not related to tobacco smoking nor alcohol drinking and without changes in their diets. We studied total meat, red meat, beef, lamb, processed meat, poultry, fish, total white meat, liver, fried meat, barbecued meat, boiled meat, heterocyclic amines, nitrosodimethylamine, and benzo[a]pyrene in relation with the risk of ESCC. Red meat, lamb, and boiled meat were directly associated with the risk of ESCC, whereas total white meat, poultry, fish, and liver were mainly protective against this malignancy. Source

Deneo-Pellegrini H.,Epidemiology Group | De Stefani E.,Epidemiology Group | Boffetta P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | Ronco A.L.,University of Maldonado | And 3 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2013

Background In the period 1990 to 2001, a case-control study on oral cancer and maté consumption was conducted at the Cancer Institute of Uruguay. Methods The study included 696 newly diagnosed cases with squamous cell carcinoma and 696 controls afflicted with nonneoplastic conditions not related to tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. The participants were matched on age and residence and the study was restricted to men. Results In order to control confounding for tobacco and alcohol, we fitted 2 models. According to model 1, the odds ratio (OR) for maté consumption was 1.15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.76-1.73), whereas the results for model 2 showed an OR of 3.47 (95% CI, 1.60-7.52). Conclusions The inclusion of a term for the interaction between maté and smoking (or drinking) was rewarding and the ORs were even higher than those observed with the crude estimates. Head Neck, 2013 Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Deneo-Pellegrini H.,Epidemiology Group | Boffetta P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine | De Stefani E.,Epidemiology Group | Correa P.,Vanderbilt University | And 5 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2013

Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nutrient-based dietary patterns and squamous cell cancers of the head and neck. Methods We used a case-control study which included 548 cases and 548 controls. From these participants, we derived 23 nutrients and they were then submitted to a factorability analysis in order to conduct a principal component factor analysis. Results We were able to identify four nutrient-derived patterns. The first pattern (meat-based pattern) was positively associated with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (OR 2.85, 95 % CI 1.81-4.15), whereas the third pattern (fruit-based) was strongly protective (OR 0.43, 95 % CI 0.27-0.63). The other nutrient patterns were also significantly associated with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma with minor ORs. Conclusion Both patterns suggest that red meat and fruits are major factors in the etiology of head and neck squamous cell cancer, replicating previous studies in the field. © Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013. Source

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