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Perth, Australia

Kruger J.,Epidemiology Branch | Shaw L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Kahende J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Frank E.,University of British Columbia
Preventing Chronic Disease | Year: 2012

Although the prevalence of cigarette smoking has declined in the United States, little documentation exists to ascertain which health care providers (HCPs) promote smoking cessation. We used data from the 2000, 2005, and 2010 Cancer Control Supplement of the National Health Interview Survey to examine changes in the number of adults who received smoking cessation advice from their HCP. The percentage of smokers who received cessation advice was 53.3% in 2000, 58.9% in 2005, and 50.7% in 2010. To affect noticeably declining rates, HCPs should increase their efforts to advise smokers to quit.

Miller F.W.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Pollard K.M.,Scripps Research Institute | Parks C.G.,Epidemiology Branch | Germolec D.R.,National Toxicology Program | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Autoimmunity | Year: 2012

Increasing evidence supports a role for the environment in the development of autoimmune diseases, as reviewed in the accompanying three papers from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop. An important unresolved issue, however, is the development of criteria for identifying autoimmune disease phenotypes for which the environment plays a causative role, herein referred to as environmentally associated autoimmune diseases. There are several different areas in which such criteria need to be developed, including: 1) identifying the necessary and sufficient data to define environmental risk factors for autoimmune diseases meeting current classification criteria; 2) establishing the existence of and criteria for new environmentally associated autoimmune disorders that do not meet current disease classification criteria; and 3) identifying in clinical practice specific environmental agents that induce autoimmune disease in individual patients. Here we discuss approaches that could be useful for developing criteria in these three areas, as well as factors that should be considered in evaluating the evidence for criteria that can distinguish individuals with such disorders from individuals without such disorders with high sensitivity and specificity. Current studies suggest that multiple lines of complementary evidence will be important and that in many cases there will be clinical, serologic, genetic, epigenetic, and/or other laboratory features that could be incorporated as criteria for environmentally associated autoimmune diseases to improve diagnosis and treatment and possibly allow for preventative strategies in the future. © 2012.

Higa D.H.,Prevention Research Branch | Marks G.,Epidemiology Branch | Crepaz N.,Prevention Research Branch | Liau A.,Indiana University | Lyles C.M.,Prevention Research Branch
Current HIV/AIDS Reports | Year: 2012

Retaining HIV-diagnosed persons in care is a national priority, but little is known on what intervention strategies are most effective for promoting retention in care. We conducted a systematic search and qualitatively reviewed 13 published studies and three recent conference presentations to identify evidence-informed retention strategies. We extracted information on study design, methods, and intervention characteristics. Strengths-based case management that encourages clients to recognize and use their own internal abilities to access resources and solve problems offered strong evidence for retention in care. Other evidence-informed strategies included peer navigation, reducing structural- and system-level barriers, including peers as part of a health care team, displaying posters and brochures in waiting rooms, having medical providers present brief messages to patients, and having clinics stay in closer contact with patients across time. Opportunities for additional intervention strategies include using community-based organizations as a setting for engaging HIV-infected persons about the importance ofregular care and involving patients' significant others in retention in care interventions. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

Dodd J.M.,University of Adelaide | Grivell R.M.,University of Adelaide | Nguyen A.-M.,Epidemiology Branch | Chan A.,University of Adelaide | Robinson J.S.,University of Adelaide
Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology | Year: 2011

Aims: To determine the effect of increasing maternal body mass index (BMI) during pregnancy on maternal and infant health outcomes. Methods: The South Australian Pregnancy Outcome Unit's population database, 2008 was accessed to determine pregnancy outcomes according to maternal BMI. Women with a normal BMI (18.5-24.9 kg/m 2) formed a reference population, to which women in other BMI categories were compared utilising risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results: Overweight and obese women had an increased risk of gestational diabetes, hypertension and iatrogenic preterm birth. Labour was more likely to be induced, and the risk of caesarean birth was increased. Infants were more likely to require resuscitation at birth and to have birth weight in excess of 4 kg. The risk increased with increasing maternal BMI. Conclusions: There is a well-documented increased risk of maternal and perinatal health complications for women who are overweight or obese during pregnancy. © 2011 The Authors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

Luke C.,Epidemiology Branch | Price T.,Senior Consulting Medical Oncologist | Roder D.,Cancer Council South Australia
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

The incidence of liver and intrahepatic bile duct cancer in Australia is low at about one third the world average but increases are evident. South Australian registry data have been used to describe: age-standardized incidence and mortality trends; and disease-specific survivals, using Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards regression. The study included 1,220 incident cancers (901 hepatocellular carcinomas; 201 cholangiocarcinomas; 118 other types) and 983 deaths. Incidence and mortality rates increased by 2-3 fold during 1977-2007. Incidence increases affected males, females and all ages. There was a strong: male predominance (3 to 1); and age gradient (70+ year old incidence >30 times under 50 year old incidence). Compared with hepatocellular carcinomas, cholangiocarcinomas and other histology types more often affected females and older ages and less often the Asian born. All histology types showed similar incidence increases. Apart from recognized risk factors (e.g., hepatitis B/C infection and aflatoxins for hepatocellular carcinoma; liver-fluke infection for cholangiocarcinomas, etc.), common risk factors may include excess alcohol consumption and possibly obesity and diabetes mellitus. Five-year disease-specific survival in 1998-2007 was 16%, with higher fatalities applying for earlier periods, older patients, males, lower socio-economic groups, and cholangiocarcinomas. Aboriginal patients tended to have higher case fatalities (p=0.054). Survival increases may be due to earlier diagnosis from alpha feta protein testing and diagnostic imaging, plus more aggressive treatment of localized disease. Mortality increases require a preventive response, including hepatitis B vaccination, prevention of viral infection though contaminated blood and other body fluids, early detection initiatives for high-risk patients, aggressive surgery for localized disease, and experimentation with new systemic therapies.

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