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Angelski C.,University of Alberta | Angelski C.,Edmonton Clinic Health Academy | Fernandez C.V.,Dalhousie University | Weijer C.,University of Western Ontario | Gao J.,Surveillance and Epidemiology Unit
BMC Medical Ethics

Background: Publication of ethically uncertain research occurs despite well-published guidelines set forth in documents such as the Declaration of Helsinki. Such guidelines exist to aide editorial staff in making decisions regarding ethical acceptability of manuscripts submitted for publication, yet examples of ethically suspect and uncertain publication exist. Our objective was to survey journal editors regarding practices and attitudes surrounding such dilemmas. Methods. The Editor-in-chief of each of the 103 English-language journals from the 2005 Abridged Index Medicus list publishing original research were asked to complete a survey sent to them by email between September-December 2007. Results: A response rate of 33% (n = 34) was obtained from the survey. 18% (n = 6) of respondents had published ethically uncertain or suspect research within the last 10 years. 85% (n = 29) of respondents stated they would always reject ethically uncertain articles submitted for publication on ethical grounds alone. 12% (n = 4) of respondents stated they would approach each submission on a case-by-case basis. 3% (n = 1) stated they would be likely to publish such research, but only with accompanying editorial. Only 38% (n = 13) give reviewers explicit instruction to reject submissions on ethical grounds if found wanting. Conclusions: Editorial compliance with the Declaration of Helsinki in rejecting research that is conducted unethically was difficult to ascertain because of a poor response rate despite multiple attempts using different modalities. Of those who did respond, the majority do reject ethically suspect research but few explicitly advise reviewers to do so. In this study editors did not take advantage of the opportunity to describe their support for the rejection of the publication of unethical research. © 2012 Angelski et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Otterstatter M.C.,Public Health Agency of Canada | Brierley J.D.,University of Toronto | De P.,Cancer Control Policy and Information | Ellison L.F.,Statistics Canada | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology

BACKGROUND: Esophageal adenocarcinoma has one of the fastest rising incidence rates and one of the lowest survival rates of any cancer type in the Western world. However, in many countries, trends in esophageal cancer differ according to tumour morphology and anatomical location. In Canada, incidence and survival trends for esophageal cancer subtypes are poorly known. METHODS: Cancer incidence and mortality rates were obtained from the Canadian Cancer Registry, the National Cancer Incidence Reporting System and the Canadian Vital Statistics Death databases for the period from 1986 to 2006. Observed trends (annual per cent change) and five-year relative survival ratios were estimated separately for esophageal adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma, and according to location (upper, middle, or lower one-third of the esophagus).Incidence rates were projected up to the year 2026. RESULTS: Annual age-standardized incidence rates for esophageal cancer in 2004 to 2006 were 6.1 and 1.7 per 100,000 for males and females, respectively. Esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence rose by 3.9% (males) and 3.6% (females) per year for the period 1986 to 2006, with the steepest increase in the lower one-third of the esophagus (4.8% and 5.0% per year among males and females, respectively). In contrast, squamous cell carcinoma incidence declined by 3.3% (males) and 3.2% (females) per year since the early 1990s. The five-year relative survival ratio for esophageal cancer was 13% between 2004 and 2006, approximately a 3% increase since the period from 1992 to 1994. Projected incidence rates showed increases of 40% to 50% for esophageal adenocarcinoma and decreases of 30% for squamous cell carcinoma by 2026. DISCUSSION: Although esophageal cancer is rare in Canada, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma has doubled in the past 20 years, which may reflect the increasing prevalence of obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease. Declines in squamous cell carcinoma may be the result of the decreases in the prevalence of smoking in Canada. Given the low survival rates and the potential for further increases in incidence, esophageal adenocarcinoma warrants close attention. ©2012 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Porter G.A.,Dalhousie University | Porter G.A.,Cancer Outcomes Research Program | Urquhart R.,Cancer Outcomes Research Program | Bu J.,Cancer Outcomes Research Program | And 4 more authors.
BMC Cancer

Background: Adequate nodal harvest (≥ 12 lymph nodes) in colorectal cancer has been shown to optimize staging and proposed as a quality indicator of colorectal cancer care. An audit within a single health district in Nova Scotia, Canada presented and published in 2002, revealed that adequate nodal harvest occurred in only 22% of patients. The goal of this current study was to identify factors associated with adequate nodal harvest, and specifically to examine the impact of the audit and feedback strategy on nodal harvest.Methods: This population-based study included all patients undergoing resection for primary colorectal cancer in Nova Scotia, Canada, from 01 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. Linkage of the provincial cancer registry with other databases (hospital discharge, physician claims data, and national census data) provided clinicodemographic, diagnostic, and treatment-event data. Factors associated with adequate nodal harvest were examined using multivariate logistic regression. The specific interaction between year and health district was examined to identify any potential effect of dissemination of the previously-performed audit.Results: Among the 2,322 patients, the median nodal harvest was 8; overall, 719 (31%) had an adequate nodal harvest. On multivariate analysis, audited health district (p < 0.0001), year (p < 0.0001), younger age (p < 0.0001), non-emergent surgery (p < 0.0001), more advanced stage (p = 0.008), and previous cancer history (p = 0.03) were associated with an increased likelihood of an adequate nodal harvest. Interaction between year and audited health district was identified (p = 0.006) such that the increase in adequate nodal harvest over time was significantly greater in the audited health district.Conclusions: Improvements in colorectal cancer nodal harvest did occur over time. A published audit demonstrating suboptimal nodal harvest appeared to be an effective knowledge translation tool, though more so for the audited health district, suggesting a potentially beneficial effect of audit and feedback strategies. © 2011 Porter et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Murray C.L.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Walsh G.W.,Surveillance and Epidemiology Unit | Connor Gorber S.,Public Health Agency of Canada
Journal of Obesity

Objectives. To determine whether obesity correction equations for the Canadian general population, which are dependent on the prevalence of obesity, are appropriate for use in Atlantic Canada, which has the highest obesity rates in the country. Also, to compare the accuracy of the national equations to equations developed specifically for the Atlantic Canadian population. Methods. The dataset consisted of Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) 2007-2008 data collected on 17,126 Atlantic Canadians and a subsample of adults, who provided measured height and weight (MHW) data. Atlantic correction equations were developed in the MHW subsample. Using separate multiple regression models for men and women, self-reported body mass index (BMI) was corrected by multiplying the self-reported estimate by its corresponding model coefficient and adding the model intercept. Paired t-tests were used to determine whether corrected mean BMI values were significantly more accurate (i.e., closer to measured data) than the equivalent means based on self-reported data. The analyses were repeated using the national equations. Results. Both the Atlantic and the national equations yielded corrected obesity estimates that were significantly more accurate than those based on self-report. Conclusion. The results provide some evidence of the generalizability of the national equations to atypical regions of Canada. © 2012 Cynthia L. Murray et al. Source

Cheung K.W.,University of British Columbia | Kovacs G.J.,Dalhousie University | LeBlanc D.J.,Atlantic Health Training and Simulation Center | Gao J.,Surveillance and Epidemiology Unit | And 2 more authors.
Academic Emergency Medicine

Objectives: This study sought to investigate the minimal laryngoscope illumination required for proper laryngoscopy and intubation in different ambient light settings as determined by paramedics. Methods: Paramedics qualified to intubate patients in the field were recruited to intubate a cadaver embalmed with a minimal fixation technique designed to maintain tissue integrity. All paramedic participants intubated the cadaver under three different ambient light settings representing possible out-of-hospital settings: an outdoor night setting, an indoor setting, and an outdoor day setting. Paramedics were asked to determine the minimal illumination required for intubation of the cadaver under each of these settings. Results: Twenty-three paramedics participated in the study. The mean (±SD) minimal illumination required for intubation was 39.1 (±35.4) lux at the night setting, 92.5 (±57.3) lux at the indoor setting, and 209.7 (±117.4) lux at the day setting. There was a statistically significant difference in minimal illumination required between each of the three light settings (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: Minimal illumination requirements in the out-of-hospital setting may be lower than previously recommended. Ambient light intensity affects this minimal illumination requirement, with brighter ambient light conditions necessitating more laryngoscope light output. Further studies assessing out-of-hospital laryngoscope illumination should consider ambient light conditions. © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine. Source

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