Epidemiology and Research Unit

H̱olon, Israel

Epidemiology and Research Unit

H̱olon, Israel
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PubMed | University Utrecht, Epidemiology and Research Unit, Epidemiology Unit, Sanquin Blood Supply Foundation and Transfusion Technology Assessment Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Vox sanguinis | Year: 2016

The risk of dengue transmitted by travellers is known. Methods to estimate the transmission by transfusion (TT) risk from blood donors travelling to risk areas are available, for instance, the European Up-Front Risk Assessment Tool (EUFRAT). This study aimed to validate the estimated risk from travelling donors obtained from EUFRAT.Surveillance data on notified dengue cases in Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean islands (Aruba, Curaao, St. Maarten, Bonaire, St. Eustatius and Saba) in 2001-2011 was used to calculate local incidence rates. Information on travel and donation behaviour of Dutch donors was collected. With the EUFRAT model, the TT risks from Dutch travelling donors were calculated. Model estimates were compared with the number of infections in Dutch travellers found by laboratory tests in the Netherlands.The expected cumulative number of donors becoming infected during travels to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean from 2001 to 2011 was estimated at 5 (95% CI, 2-11) and 86 (45-179), respectively. The infection risk inferred from the laboratory-based study was 19 (9-61) and 28 (14-92). Given the independence of the data sources, these estimates are remarkably close. The model estimated that 002 (0001-006) and 040 (001-14) recipients would have been infected by these travelling donors.The EUFRAT model provided an estimate close to actual observed number of dengue infections. The dengue TT risk among Dutch travelling donors can be estimated using basic transmission, travel and donation information. The TT risk from Dutch donors travelling to Suriname and the Dutch Caribbean is small.

Frand J.,Wolfson Medical Center | Borislavsky A.,Wolfson Medical Center | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Boaz M.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2013

Objectives: Haptoglobin (Hb) and adiponectin are antioxidant proteins and independent predictors of atherosclerotic vascular disease in diabetic patients. The link between Hp phenotype and circulating adiponectin levels were examined. Methods: Diabetic patients were divided into two groups by Hp phenotype: Hp 2-2 group and non-Hp 2-2 group (Hp 2-1 and Hp 1-1). Blood glucose, HbA1C, insulin, lipids, CRP, HOMA-IR, 25OH vitamin D, leptin and adiponectin levels were measured. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was performed using SphygmoCor (version 7.1, AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia). Results: PWV was significantly higher in patients homozygous for the 2 allele (Hp 2-2) compared to non-Hp 2-2 patients (Hp 1-1 and Hp 1-2), p < 0.0001. Adiponectin was significantly lower in Hp 2-2 patients than in non-Hp 2-2 group (p < 0.016). Neither leptin nor the leptin adiponectin ratio (LAR) differed significantly between groups. Conclusions: PWV was significantly higher and plasma adiponectin levels were significantly lower in diabetic patients homozygous for the 2 allele (Hp 2-2). These differences were detected despite the lack of by-phenotype differences in glycemic control, blood pressure level or presence of cardiovascular risk factor and suggest an active role of adiponectin in the pathophysiology of vascular disease in this population. © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Breslavsky A.,Wolfson Medical Center | Frand J.,Wolfson Medical Center | Matas Z.,Wolfson Medical Center | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background & aims: Vitamin D supplementation has the potential to alleviate the cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to evaluate long term impact of high doses of vitamin D on arterial properties, glucose homeostasis, adiponectin and leptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and results: In randomized, placebo-controlled study 47 diabetic patients were assigned into two groups: Group 1 received oral daily supplementation with vitamin D at a dose of 1000U/day for 12 months. Group 2 received matching placebo capsules. Blood sampling for metabolic parameters, including fasting glucose, lipid profile, HbA1C, insulin, hs-CRP, 25 OH Vit D, adiponectin and leptin was performed at baseline and at the end of the study. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Central aortic augmentation index (AI) was evaluated using SphygmoCor. Results: The two groups were similar at baseline in terms of hemodynamic parameters. After 12 months, AI decreased significantly during the treatment period in patients received vitamin D (p<0.0001) and did not change in placebo group. Glucose homeostasis parameters, leptin as well as leptin adiponectin ratio did not change in both groups. 25 OH Vit D level significantly increased (p=0.022) and circulating adiponectin marginally increased (p=0.065) during 12 month treatment period in active treatment and did not change in placebo group. Conclusions: High doses of vitamin D supplementation in diabetic patients was associated with significant decrease in AI during one year treatment. This beneficial vascular effect was not associated with improvement in glucose homeostasis parameters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.

Kalmovich B.,Wolfson Medical Center | Bar-Dayan Y.,Diabetes Unit | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Wainstein J.,Diabetes Unit
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2012

Objectives: Hyperglycemia is a prominent feature among patients exposed to major stress such as in cardiac surgery. The implementation of a continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS) for glucose monitoring during cardiac surgery was assessed. Subjects and Methods: Fifty-nine consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery were monitored by CGMS. Patients' fluid glucose content, drug requirements, and hemodynamic and physiologic parameters were evaluated. Results: Of the 59 patients, 32 completed the monitoring with CGMS. Patients were divided into three groups: diabetes patients, patients without diabetes history who developed significant hyperglycemia perioperatively, and patients who did not develop hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was most frequently observed postoperatively. Hyperglycemic patients required significantly more insulin (81±40 vs. 34±37 units, P=0.005) and experienced an increased early complication rate, although this difference was not significant. CGMS erroneously detected late-phase operative and immediate postoperative hypoglycemia in approximately one-third of patients as reflected from venous blood sample measurements. Conclusions: CGMS enables close monitoring and optimal control of blood glucose among patients undergoing major cardiac surgery, although its reliability is limited during the cardiac surgery phase and in the early postoperative period, because of incorrect hypoglycemic readings. © 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Sofer E.,Wolfson Medical Center | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Matas Z.,Wolfson Medical Center | Mashavi M.,Wolfson Medical Center | And 3 more authors.
Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental | Year: 2011

Insulin resistance has an important role in the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and is involved in both pathological processes: hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. Therefore, treatment of NAFLD with insulin sensitizers is likely to have a favorable effect toward hepatic steatosis and cardiovascular outcomes. The present study investigated the effect of metformin on arterial properties, metabolic parameters, and liver function in patients with NAFLD. In a randomized, placebo-controlled study, 63 patients with NAFLD were assigned to 1 of 2 groups: Group 1 received daily metformin; group 2 received placebo. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AI) were measured using SphygmoCor (version 7.1; AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia) at baseline and at the end of the 4-month treatment period. Metabolic measures and serum adiponectin levels were determined. Among metformin-treated patients, PWV and AI decreased significantly during the study. Significant declines in fasting glucose, triglyceride, and alkaline phosphatase and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol were observed. Alanine aminotransferase decreased and serum adiponectin increased marginally. In the placebo group, neither PWV nor AI improved significantly during the treatment period. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and adiponectin did not change in the placebo group. Metformin treatment was associated with significant decrease in PWV and AI in NAFLD patients. This beneficial vascular effect was accompanied by an improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism as well as liver enzymes. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Leibovitz E.,lfson Medical Center | Giryes S.,Tel Aviv University | Makhline R.,lfson Medical Center | Zikri Ditch M.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Malnutrition risk and its consequences have not been reported in obese and overweight newly hospitalized patients. To estimate malnutrition risk among newly hospitalized overweight or obese patients, and to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on duration of hospitalization and risk of in-hospital death among hospitalized adults at increased risk of malnutrition.SUBJECTS/METHODS:In this survey, all adults newly admitted to internal medicine and surgical departments at a large tertiary medical center, during the 5-week data acquisition period in 2010, were screened for malnutrition risk using the Nutrition Risk Screen (NRS 2002). Malnutrition risk was compared across body weight categories. In addition, overweight/obese subjects were compared by malnutrition risk category.RESULTS:Of the 431 individuals analyzed, 138 were overweight and 105 were obese. Among overweight or obese patients, 23.2% and 24.8%, respectively, were at increased risk for malnutrition. Elevated risk for malnutrition prolonged hospitalization for both overweight and obese patients (from 5.6±7.9 to 10.0±10.3 days (P=0.04) and from 4.8±4.6 to 15.1±25.7 days (P=0.001), respectively). Prolonged hospital stay remained associated with malnutrition risk after controlling for age and BMI. Malnutrition risk significantly increased odds of in-hospital death: odds ratio (OR) 6.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-33.2, P=0.03, even after controlling for age and BMI.CONCLUSIONS:Increased malnutrition risk is a frequent finding in newly hospitalized overweight/obese adults, prolongs length of hospital stay and increases risk of in-hospital mortality. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Wainstein J.,Diabetes Unit | Ganz T.,Diabetes Unit | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Boaz M.,Ariel University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2012

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries as extracts, herbal teas, and powder. They contain several potentially bioactive compounds that may have hypoglycemic properties. To examine the efficacy of 500mg oral olive leaf extract taken once daily in tablet form versus matching placebo in improving glucose homeostasis in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this controlled clinical trial, 79 adults with T2DM were randomized to treatment with 500mg olive leaf extract tablet taken orally once daily or matching placebo. The study duration was 14 weeks. Measures of glucose homeostasis including Hba1c and plasma insulin were measured and compared by treatment assignment. In a series of animal models, normal, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic, and sand rats were used in the inverted sac model to determine the mechanism through which olive leaf extract affected starch digestion and absorption. In the randomized clinical trial, the subjects treated with olive leaf extract exhibited significantly lower HbA1c and fasting plasma insulin levels; however, postprandial plasma insulin levels did not differ significantly by treatment group. In the animal models, normal and STZ diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced starch digestion and absorption after treatment with olive leaf extract compared with intestine without olive leaf treatment. Reduced digestion and absorption was observed in both the mucosal and serosal sides of the intestine. Though reduced, the decline in starch digestion and absorption did not reach statistical significance in the sand rats. Olive leaf extract is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in humans. Animal models indicate that this may be facilitated through the reduction of starch digestion and absorption. Olive leaf extract may represent an effective adjunct therapy that normalizes glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Jakubowicz D.,Tel Aviv University | Froy O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Wainstein J.,Tel Aviv University | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Boaz M.,Ariel University
Steroids | Year: 2012

Background: Although dietary restriction often results in initial weight loss, the majority of obese dieters fail to maintain their reduced weight. Diet-induced weight loss results in compensatory increase of hunger, craving and decreased ghrelin suppression that encourage weight regain. A high protein and carbohydrate breakfast may overcome these compensatory changes and prevent obesity relapse. Methods: In this study 193 obese (BMI 32.2 ± 1.0 kg/m 2), sedentary non diabetic adult men and women (47 ± 7 years) were randomized to a low carbohydrate breakfast (LCb) or an isocaloric diet with high carbohydrate and protein breakfast (HCPb). Anthropometric measures were assessed every 4 weeks. Fasting glucose, insulin, ghrelin, lipids, craving scores and breakfast meal challenge assessing hunger, satiety, insulin and ghrelin responses, were performed at baseline, after a Diet Intervention Period (Week 16) and after a Follow-up Period (Week 32). Results: At Week 16, groups exhibited similar weight loss: 15.1 ± 1.9 kg in LCb group vs. 13.5 ± 2.3 kg in HCPb group, p = 0.11. From Week 16 to Week 32, LCb group regained 11.6 ± 2.6 kg, while the HCPb group lost additional 6.9 ± 1.7 kg. Ghrelin levels were reduced after breakfast by 45.2% and 29.5% following the HCPb and LCb, respectively. Satiety was significantly improved and hunger and craving scores significantly reduced in the HCPb group vs. the LCb group. Conclusion: A high carbohydrate and protein breakfast may prevent weight regain by reducing diet-induced compensatory changes in hunger, cravings and ghrelin suppression. To achieve long-term weight loss, meal timing and macronutrient composition must counteract these compensatory mechanisms which encourage weight regain after weight loss. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Shargorodsky M.,Wolfson Med Center | Shargorodsky M.,Tel Aviv University | Omelchenko E.,Wolfson Med Center | Omelchenko E.,Tel Aviv University | And 6 more authors.
Cardiovascular Diabetology | Year: 2012

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is the major driving force behind development and progression of atherosclerosis in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Therefore, correction of IR is a relevant therapeutic target.We performed the current trial to evaluate whether 12- month metformin therapy improves vascular stiffness in patients with NAFLD and to assess if this improvement is associated with change in glucose control, insulin resistance or circulating adiponectin.Methods: In randomized, placebo controlled study, 63 patients with NAFLD were assigned to one of two groups: Group 1 received daily metformin; Group 2 received placebo. Central aortic augmentation index (AI) was performed using SphygmoCor (version 7.1, AtCor Medical, Sydney, Australia) at baseline, at 4-and 12-month treatment period. Metabolic parameters, insulin resistance markers and serum adiponectin levels were determined.Results: In placebo group: AI did not improve during the treatment period. Liver function and adiponectin levels did not change during the study.In multiple linear regression analysis, the independent predictors of arterial stiffness improvement were metformin treatment and increase in circulating adiponectin levels.Among metformin treated patients: AI decreased significantly during the study. ALP and ALT decreased during initial 4-month treatment period, however raised to the pretreatment levels after 12 months. Serum adiponectin level tended to increase during treatment period with metformin.Conclusions: Metformin treatment was associated with significant decrease in AI during one year treatment in NAFLD patients. These beneficial vascular effects was associated with exposure to metformin per se as well as change in adiponectin levels suggesting that metformin may mediate its vascular effects via glicemic control-independent mechanisms.Trial registry: no: NCT01084486. © 2012 Shargorodsky et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Katzir Z.,Nephrology and Hypertension Institute | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Backshi I.,Nephrology and Hypertension Institute | Cernes R.,Nephrology and Hypertension Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nephron - Clinical Practice | Year: 2010

Background: Compliance with treatment regimens is a continuing challenge for chronic dialysis patients and their medical caregivers. Poor patient adherence to prescribed medications can adversely affect treatment outcome. Study Design: In this pre- versus post-intervention study, 89 chronic dialysis patients [75 hemodialysis (HD), 14 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD); mean age 62.7 ± 12.39 years, 34 females] responded to a written questionnaire designed to assess knowledge about and compliance with 5 groups of prescribed medications: metabolic drugs, antihypertensives, cardiac-supporting agents, peptic disease therapy and hematological replacement therapy. Mode of intake, storage, means of supply and source of information for each class of drug were also assessed. Patients then received both oral and written instructions regarding their prescribed medications (intervention). This information was repeated 3 months later. Six months after the intervention, patients were re-administered the questionnaires. Response to the questionnaires and laboratory data were compared prior to and following the intervention. Results: Overall, compliance with prescribed medications significantly improved following the intervention, from 89 to 95.7%, p = 0.0007. This relative improvement was greater in HD than CAPD patients (27 vs. 2%, p < 0.0001). Improvement in compliance was associated with lower initial scores, fewer years of education, and longer dialysis vintage. Compared to baseline values, post-intervention blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin and Ca levels were significantly improved. Conclusions: Dialysis patients appear to benefit from receiving comprehensive guidance about medications, in terms of compliance with medications and blood chemistry and hematology measures. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG.

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