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Wainstein J.,Diabetes Unit | Ganz T.,Diabetes Unit | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Boaz M.,Ariel University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Food

Olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaves have been widely used in traditional remedies in European and Mediterranean countries as extracts, herbal teas, and powder. They contain several potentially bioactive compounds that may have hypoglycemic properties. To examine the efficacy of 500mg oral olive leaf extract taken once daily in tablet form versus matching placebo in improving glucose homeostasis in adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In this controlled clinical trial, 79 adults with T2DM were randomized to treatment with 500mg olive leaf extract tablet taken orally once daily or matching placebo. The study duration was 14 weeks. Measures of glucose homeostasis including Hba1c and plasma insulin were measured and compared by treatment assignment. In a series of animal models, normal, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic, and sand rats were used in the inverted sac model to determine the mechanism through which olive leaf extract affected starch digestion and absorption. In the randomized clinical trial, the subjects treated with olive leaf extract exhibited significantly lower HbA1c and fasting plasma insulin levels; however, postprandial plasma insulin levels did not differ significantly by treatment group. In the animal models, normal and STZ diabetic rats exhibited significantly reduced starch digestion and absorption after treatment with olive leaf extract compared with intestine without olive leaf treatment. Reduced digestion and absorption was observed in both the mucosal and serosal sides of the intestine. Though reduced, the decline in starch digestion and absorption did not reach statistical significance in the sand rats. Olive leaf extract is associated with improved glucose homeostasis in humans. Animal models indicate that this may be facilitated through the reduction of starch digestion and absorption. Olive leaf extract may represent an effective adjunct therapy that normalizes glucose homeostasis in individuals with diabetes. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Katzir Z.,Nephrology and Hypertension Institute | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Backshi I.,Nephrology and Hypertension Institute | Cernes R.,Nephrology and Hypertension Institute | And 2 more authors.
Nephron - Clinical Practice

Background: Compliance with treatment regimens is a continuing challenge for chronic dialysis patients and their medical caregivers. Poor patient adherence to prescribed medications can adversely affect treatment outcome. Study Design: In this pre- versus post-intervention study, 89 chronic dialysis patients [75 hemodialysis (HD), 14 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD); mean age 62.7 ± 12.39 years, 34 females] responded to a written questionnaire designed to assess knowledge about and compliance with 5 groups of prescribed medications: metabolic drugs, antihypertensives, cardiac-supporting agents, peptic disease therapy and hematological replacement therapy. Mode of intake, storage, means of supply and source of information for each class of drug were also assessed. Patients then received both oral and written instructions regarding their prescribed medications (intervention). This information was repeated 3 months later. Six months after the intervention, patients were re-administered the questionnaires. Response to the questionnaires and laboratory data were compared prior to and following the intervention. Results: Overall, compliance with prescribed medications significantly improved following the intervention, from 89 to 95.7%, p = 0.0007. This relative improvement was greater in HD than CAPD patients (27 vs. 2%, p < 0.0001). Improvement in compliance was associated with lower initial scores, fewer years of education, and longer dialysis vintage. Compared to baseline values, post-intervention blood hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, ferritin and Ca levels were significantly improved. Conclusions: Dialysis patients appear to benefit from receiving comprehensive guidance about medications, in terms of compliance with medications and blood chemistry and hematology measures. Copyright © 2009 S. Karger AG. Source

Breslavsky A.,Wolfson Medical Center | Frand J.,Wolfson Medical Center | Matas Z.,Wolfson Medical Center | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Nutrition

Background & aims: Vitamin D supplementation has the potential to alleviate the cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to evaluate long term impact of high doses of vitamin D on arterial properties, glucose homeostasis, adiponectin and leptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods and results: In randomized, placebo-controlled study 47 diabetic patients were assigned into two groups: Group 1 received oral daily supplementation with vitamin D at a dose of 1000U/day for 12 months. Group 2 received matching placebo capsules. Blood sampling for metabolic parameters, including fasting glucose, lipid profile, HbA1C, insulin, hs-CRP, 25 OH Vit D, adiponectin and leptin was performed at baseline and at the end of the study. Insulin resistance was assessed by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Central aortic augmentation index (AI) was evaluated using SphygmoCor. Results: The two groups were similar at baseline in terms of hemodynamic parameters. After 12 months, AI decreased significantly during the treatment period in patients received vitamin D (p<0.0001) and did not change in placebo group. Glucose homeostasis parameters, leptin as well as leptin adiponectin ratio did not change in both groups. 25 OH Vit D level significantly increased (p=0.022) and circulating adiponectin marginally increased (p=0.065) during 12 month treatment period in active treatment and did not change in placebo group. Conclusions: High doses of vitamin D supplementation in diabetic patients was associated with significant decrease in AI during one year treatment. This beneficial vascular effect was not associated with improvement in glucose homeostasis parameters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Source

Leibovitz E.,lfson Medical Center | Giryes S.,Tel Aviv University | Makhline R.,lfson Medical Center | Zikri Ditch M.,Tel Aviv University | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Malnutrition risk and its consequences have not been reported in obese and overweight newly hospitalized patients. To estimate malnutrition risk among newly hospitalized overweight or obese patients, and to assess the effect of body mass index (BMI) on duration of hospitalization and risk of in-hospital death among hospitalized adults at increased risk of malnutrition.SUBJECTS/METHODS:In this survey, all adults newly admitted to internal medicine and surgical departments at a large tertiary medical center, during the 5-week data acquisition period in 2010, were screened for malnutrition risk using the Nutrition Risk Screen (NRS 2002). Malnutrition risk was compared across body weight categories. In addition, overweight/obese subjects were compared by malnutrition risk category.RESULTS:Of the 431 individuals analyzed, 138 were overweight and 105 were obese. Among overweight or obese patients, 23.2% and 24.8%, respectively, were at increased risk for malnutrition. Elevated risk for malnutrition prolonged hospitalization for both overweight and obese patients (from 5.6±7.9 to 10.0±10.3 days (P=0.04) and from 4.8±4.6 to 15.1±25.7 days (P=0.001), respectively). Prolonged hospital stay remained associated with malnutrition risk after controlling for age and BMI. Malnutrition risk significantly increased odds of in-hospital death: odds ratio (OR) 6.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-33.2, P=0.03, even after controlling for age and BMI.CONCLUSIONS:Increased malnutrition risk is a frequent finding in newly hospitalized overweight/obese adults, prolongs length of hospital stay and increases risk of in-hospital mortality. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Jakubowicz D.,Tel Aviv University | Froy O.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem | Wainstein J.,Tel Aviv University | Boaz M.,Epidemiology and Research Unit | Boaz M.,Ariel University

Background: Although dietary restriction often results in initial weight loss, the majority of obese dieters fail to maintain their reduced weight. Diet-induced weight loss results in compensatory increase of hunger, craving and decreased ghrelin suppression that encourage weight regain. A high protein and carbohydrate breakfast may overcome these compensatory changes and prevent obesity relapse. Methods: In this study 193 obese (BMI 32.2 ± 1.0 kg/m 2), sedentary non diabetic adult men and women (47 ± 7 years) were randomized to a low carbohydrate breakfast (LCb) or an isocaloric diet with high carbohydrate and protein breakfast (HCPb). Anthropometric measures were assessed every 4 weeks. Fasting glucose, insulin, ghrelin, lipids, craving scores and breakfast meal challenge assessing hunger, satiety, insulin and ghrelin responses, were performed at baseline, after a Diet Intervention Period (Week 16) and after a Follow-up Period (Week 32). Results: At Week 16, groups exhibited similar weight loss: 15.1 ± 1.9 kg in LCb group vs. 13.5 ± 2.3 kg in HCPb group, p = 0.11. From Week 16 to Week 32, LCb group regained 11.6 ± 2.6 kg, while the HCPb group lost additional 6.9 ± 1.7 kg. Ghrelin levels were reduced after breakfast by 45.2% and 29.5% following the HCPb and LCb, respectively. Satiety was significantly improved and hunger and craving scores significantly reduced in the HCPb group vs. the LCb group. Conclusion: A high carbohydrate and protein breakfast may prevent weight regain by reducing diet-induced compensatory changes in hunger, cravings and ghrelin suppression. To achieve long-term weight loss, meal timing and macronutrient composition must counteract these compensatory mechanisms which encourage weight regain after weight loss. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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