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Minicozzi P.,Analytical Epidemiology and Health Impact Unit | Bella F.,Analytical Epidemiology and Health Impact Unit | Toss A.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | Giacomin A.,Epidemiology Unit | And 10 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology | Year: 2013

Purpose: No population-based study has investigated breast cancer (BC) subtypes defined by including Ki67. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative proportions of immunohistochemical subtypes and differences in relative and disease-free survival between subtypes, in relation to patient and other cancer characteristics in Italian BC patient. Methods: Information on estrogen, progesterone, human epidermal growth factor (HER2), Ki67, and relapses was obtained for 3,381 cases, sampled randomly and anonymously from cases diagnosed in 2003-2005 in nine Italian cancer registries. Relative excess risks (RERs) of death and risks of relapse 5 years after diagnosis were estimated. Results: Luminal A cancers were 42 % of the total, luminal B 27 %, luminal-HER2 14 %, triple-negative 11 %, and HER2-enriched 7 %. For non-metastatic (3,302) cases, 4 and 7 % developed locoregional and distant metastases, respectively. RERs of death and risks of relapse were significantly greater for all cancer subtypes than luminal A, particularly for triple-negative and HER2-enriched cancers, which were more frequent in women <40 years. Conclusions: Our population-based findings confirm that subtype is an independent prognostic factor for BC. Triple-negative and HER2-enriched subtypes would benefit from the development and wide application, respectively, of targeted treatments, which would also improve survival for younger patients. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Agnoli C.,Nutritional Epidemiology Unit | Berrino F.,Etiological and Preventive Epidemiology Unit | Abagnato C.A.,Centro Medico Diagnostico Emilia | Muti P.,Epidemiology and Prevention Unit | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Background and aims: The increase in breast cancer incidence over recent decades has been accompanied by an increase in the frequency of metabolic syndrome. Several studies suggest that breast cancer risk is associated with the components of metabolic syndrome (high serum glucose and triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol, high blood pressure, and abdominal obesity), but no prospective study has investigated risk in relation to the presence of explicitly defined metabolic syndrome. We investigated associations between metabolic syndrome, its components, and breast cancer risk in a nested case-control study on postmenopausal women of the ORDET cohort. Methods and results: After a median follow-up of 13.5 years, 163 women developed breast cancer; metabolic syndrome was present in 29.8%. Four matched controls per case were selected by incidence density sampling, and rate ratios were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Metabolic syndrome (i.e. presence of three or more metabolic syndrome components) was significantly associated with breast cancer risk (rate ratio 1.58 [95% confidence interval 1.07-2.33]), with a significant risk increase for increasing number of components (P for trend 0.004). Among individual metabolic syndrome components, only low serum HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were significantly associated with increased risk. Conclusions: This prospective study indicates that metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Although serum HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides had the strongest association with breast cancer, all components may contribute to increased risk by multiple interacting mechanisms. Prevention or reversal of metabolic syndrome by life-style changes may be effective in preventing breast cancer in postmenopausal women. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Pounis G.,Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemioloy | Di Castelnuovo A.,Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemioloy | Bonaccio M.,Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemioloy | Costanzo S.,Laboratory of Molecular and Nutritional Epidemioloy | And 5 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background/Objectives: The objective of this study is to extract and assess data on the dietary intake of flavonoids and lignans in a healthy free-living Mediterranean population, using newly updated harmonized European Union food composition data. This work also aimed at analyzing in a holistic way the total content of the diet in major classes of polyphenols. Subjects/Methods: Six thousand nine hundred and eighty-one men and 7048 women (aged ≥35years) of the Moli-sani cohort, randomly recruited from the general population, were analyzed. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) and Nutrition-Food Frequency Questionnaire was used for dietary assessment. The polyphenol content of each food group was evaluated using Eurofir BioActive Substances in Food Information System and the United States Department of Agriculture food composition tables (FCTs), when data were missing. Flavonol, flavone, flavanone, flavanol, anthocyanin, isoflavone and lignan intakes were calculated and polyphenol antioxidant content (PAC) score (-28, 28) constructed, to assess the total content of the diet in these nutrients. Results: Seasonal and citrus fruits, leafy, grain, pod and root vegetables, and onions and garlic accounted for different proportions (11-70%) of the total intake of different polyphenols. Within the Moli-sani population, men or older, or no/former smokers, or physically active or obese/overweight individuals presented higher consumption of flavonoids, lignans and PAC score (P for all <0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that PAC score and its seven components were positively associated with Mediterranean diet (MeD) adherence in both genders (β-coefficient >0, P<0.001). In addition, 1 unit increase in PAC score was associated with 7.1-7.8% increase in the likelihood of high MeD adherence (P<0.001). Conclusions: The intake of flavonoids and lignans in an European Union population was calculated using harmonized European Union FCT data. In addition, a holistic approach in dietary analysis of polyphenol intake was proposed. © 2016 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Lissner L.,Gothenburg University | Lanfer A.,BIPS Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention Research | Gwozdz W.,Copenhagen Business School | Olafsdottir S.,Gothenburg University | And 13 more authors.
European Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2012

Early television exposure has been associated with various health outcomes including childhood obesity. This paper describes associations between patterns of television viewing, on one hand, and diet, taste preference and weight status, on the other, in European preschoolers and schoolchildren. The IDEFICS baseline survey was conducted at examination centers in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Germany, Hungary, and Spain. 15,144 children aged 2-9 completed the basic protocol, including anthropometry and parental questionnaires on their diets and television habits. A subsample of 1,696 schoolchildren underwent further sensory testing for fat and sweet taste preferences. Three dichotomous indicators described: children's habitual television exposure time; television viewing during meals; and having televisions in their bedrooms. Based on these variables we investigated television habits in relation to overweight (IOTF) and usual consumption of foods high in fat and sugar. A possible role of taste preference in the latter association was tested in the sensory subgroup. All television indicators were significantly associated with increased risk of overweight, with odds ratios ranging from 1.21 to 1.30, in fully adjusted models. Children's propensities to consume high-fat and high-sugar foods were positively and, in most analyses, monotonically associated with high-risk television behaviors. The associations between television and diet propensities were not explained by preference for added fat or sugar in test foods. To summarize, in addition to being more overweight, children with high-risk television behaviors may, independent of objectively measured taste preferences for fat and sugar, passively overconsume higher-fat and particularly higher-sugar diets. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Hebestreit A.,Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS | Bornhorst C.,Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS | Pala V.,Epidemiology and Prevention Unit | Barba G.,National Research Council Italy | And 7 more authors.
International journal of obesity (2005) | Year: 2014

OBJECTIVES: To describe energy density (ED; kcal g(-1)) of dietary intake of European children.METHODS: From 16, 228 children who participated in the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS) baseline examination, 8551 children with 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR), with plausible reported energy intakes and complete covariate information were included in the present analysis. ED was calculated using two methods: (1) ED including solid foods (EDF) and (2) ED including solid foods and energy-containing beverages (EDF&B). Beverage energy was calculated in kcal per day. Dietary characteristics and body mass index (BMI) z-score of children aged 2 to <6 years and 6 to <10 years were compared between children with an overall EDF below the <25th percentile, between the 25th and 75th percentile as well as above the >75th percentile. Standardised regression coefficients were estimated to assess the association between dietary characteristics, BMI z-score and ED of the diet.RESULTS: Children with low EDF and EDF&B diets consumed less energy but higher quantity of food and beverages than children with high EDF and EDF&B diets. Consumption of caloric beverages decreased with increasing EDF&B of the diet owing to the relatively low ED of the beverages, in relation to solid foods. Generally, children with low EDF and EDF&B diets showed healthier food choices than peers with higher EDF and EDF&B diets. In this sample, EDF and EDF&B were not associated with BMI z-score.CONCLUSION: Health promotion strategies should proclaim lower ED diets by means of foods with high water and low fat content and mainly fruit and vegetable components. Excluding caloric beverages from EDF calculation is a useful method to avoid misinterpretation of true exposure to a high energy dense diet. We recommend excluding caloric beverages from EDF calculation when investigating the effect of ED on a certain (health) outcome.

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