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Nanri A.,Center for Clinical science | Mizoue T.,Center for Clinical science | Kurotani K.,Center for Clinical science | Goto A.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Objective: Evidence is sparse and contradictory regarding the association between low-carbohydrate diet score and type 2 diabetes risk, and no prospective study examined the association among Asians, who consume greater amount of carbohydrate. We prospectively investigated the association of low-carbohydrate diet score with type 2 diabetes risk. Methods: Participants were 27,799 men and 36,875 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study and who had no history of diabetes. Dietary intake was ascertained by using a validated food-frequency questionnaire, and low-carbohydrate diet score was calculated from total carbohydrate, fat, and protein intake. The scores for high animal protein and fat or for high plant protein and fat were also calculated. Odds ratios of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5-year were estimated by using logistic regression. Results: During the 5-year period, 1191 new cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Low-carbohydrate diet score for high total protein and fat was significantly associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in women (P for trend <0.001); the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio of type 2 diabetes for the highest quintile of the score were 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.46-0.84), compared with those for the lowest quintile. Additional adjustment for dietary glycemic load attenuated the association (odds ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.45-1.25). When the score separated for animal and for plant protein and fat, the score for high animal protein and fat was inversely associated with type 2 diabetes in women, whereas the score for high plant protein and fat was not associated in both men and women. Discussion: Low-carbohydrate diet was associated with decreased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese women and this association may be partly attributable to high intake of white rice. The association for animal-based and plant-based low-carbohydrate diet warrants further investigation. © 2015 Nanri et al. Source


Charvat H.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Goto A.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Goto M.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Inoue M.,Teikyo University | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Diabetes Investigation | Year: 2015

Aims/Introduction: To provide age- and sex-specific trends, age-standardized trends, and projections of diabetes prevalence through the year 2030 in the Japanese adult population. Materials and Methods: In the present meta-regression analysis, we included 161,087 adults from six studies and nine national health surveys carried out between 1988 and 2011 in Japan. We assessed the prevalence of diabetes using a recorded history of diabetes or, for the population of individuals without known diabetes, either a glycated hemoglobin level of ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol) or the 1999 World Health Organization criteria (i.e., a fasting plasma glucose level of ≥126 mg/dL and/or 2-h glucose level of ≥200 mg/dL in the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test). Results: For both sexes, prevalence appeared to remain unchanged over the years in all age categories except for men aged 70 years or older, in whom a significant increase in prevalence with time was observed. Age-standardized diabetes prevalence estimates based on the Japanese population of the corresponding year showed marked increasing trends: diabetes prevalence was 6.1% among women (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.5-6.7), 9.9% (95% CI 9.2-10.6) among men, and 7.9% (95% CI 7.5-8.4) among the total population in 2010, and was expected to rise by 2030 to 6.7% (95% CI 5.2-9.2), 13.1% (95% CI 10.9-16.7) and 9.8% (95% CI 8.5-12.0), respectively. In contrast, the age-standardized diabetes prevalence using a fixed population appeared to remain unchanged. Conclusions: This large-scale meta-regression analysis shows that a substantial increase in diabetes prevalence is expected in Japan during the next few decades, mainly as a result of the aging of the adult population. © 2015 Asian Association for the Study of Diabetes and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd. Source


Sawada N.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Sawada N.,Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening | Iwasaki M.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Yamaji T.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Dietary fiber may reduce the risk of prostate cancer, possibly by increasing circulating concentrations of sex hormone-binding globulin and improving insulin sensitivity. However, results from previous epidemiologic studies of fiber intake and prostate cancer are inconsistent, and to our knowledge, no study has comprehensively evaluated the effects of soluble and insoluble fiber on prostate cancer in Asia. Objective: The objective was to examine the association between fiber intake and prostate cancer in Japanese men. Design: We conducted a population-based prospective study in 43,435 Japanese men aged 45-74 y. Participants responded to a validated questionnaire, which included 138 food items. Follow-up was from 1995 through 2009. HRs and 95% CIs of incidence were calculated according to quartiles of fiber intake. Results: During the 11.6-y follow-up, of the 825 men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer, 213 had advanced-stage cancer, 582 had organ-localized disease, and 30 had an undetermined stage of disease. Among them, 217 cases were detected by subjective symptoms. Total fiber was not associated with total or advanced prostate cancer, with respective multivariable HRs for the highest and lowest quartiles of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.29; P-trend = 0.97) and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.07; P-trend = 0.30). Total fiber and insoluble fiber intake were associated with a decreased risk of advanced cancers detected by subjective symptoms, with multivariate HRs (95% CIs) across increasing quartiles of 1.00, 0.58, 0.62, and 0.44 (0.21, 0.92; P-trend = 0.05) for total fiber and 1.00, 0.60, 0.52, and 0.46 (0.22, 0.93; P-trend = 0.04) for insoluble fiber. Soluble fiber intake showed no association with prostate cancer. Conclusions: Dietary fiber is inversely associated with advanced prostate cancer detected by subjective symptoms even among populations with relatively low intake, such as Japanese. These results suggest that a very low intake of dietary fiber is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition Source


Hidaka A.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Hidaka A.,Jikei University School of Medicine | Sasazuki S.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Goto A.,National Health Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2015

To date, the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and gastric cancer has been controversial, including the underlying mechanism. We investigated the association between plasma diabetic biomarkers (insulin, C-peptide, and blood glucose) and gastric cancer risk. In addition, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function (HOMA-β) were calculated. A total of 36,745 subjects aged 40-69 years in the Japan Public Health Center-based prospective study (JPHC) who returned the baseline questionnaire and provided blood samples were followed from 1990 to 2004. In the present analysis, 477 cases and 477 matched controls were used. The odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for developing gastric cancer were calculated using conditional logistic regression models. Plasma insulin was positively associated with increased risk of gastric cancer; compared to tertile 1, ORs were 1.69 (95% CI = 1.11-2.59) and 2.01 (1.19-3.38) for tertiles 2 and 3, respectively (p for trend = 0.009). In men, C-peptide was also positively associated with a significant risk; corresponding ORs were 1.42 (0.85-2.38) and 1.91 (1.03-3.54), respectively (p for trend = 0.04). These findings were confirmed for blood samples from the fasting group (≤8 hr after a meal). Higher HOMA-IR was also associated with increased risk, whereas no association was observed for blood glucose. Our findings suggest that Japanese population with higher insulin and C-peptide levels derived from insulin resistance have an elevated risk of gastric cancer. © 2014 UICC. Source


Hidaka A.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Shimazu T.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Sawada N.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | Yamaji T.,Epidemiology and Prevention Group | And 5 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2015

Background: Most previous prospective studies inWestern countries found no association between consumption of fish and n-3 (v-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), for which the main source is fish, and pancreatic cancer risk. However, prospective evidence is still lacking among populations who have a relatively higher fish consumption. Objective: We investigated the association between fish and n-3 PUFA consumption and pancreatic cancer risk in a populationbased, prospective study in Japanese men and women. Design: The Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study (JPHC study) has enrolled 140,420 subjects. We analyzed data on 82,024 eligible participants aged 45-74 y without a history of cancer who responded to a validated food-frequency questionnaire that included 138 items in 1995 for cohort I and in 1998 for cohort II. Participants were followed through 2010. HRs and corresponding 95% CIs for the highest compared with lowest quartile were calculated by using multivariable-adjusted Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: During 1,068,774 person-years of follow-up, 449 newly diagnosed pancreatic cancers were identified. After the exclusion of pancreatic cancer cases in the first 3 y of follow-up, we found an inverse association of marine n-3 PUFA (EPA+DPA+DHA) and DHA consumption with pancreatic cancer risk: compared with the lowest quartile, multivariate-adjusted HRs in the highest quartile were 0.70 (95% CI: 0.51, 0.95; P-trend = 0.07) and 0.69 (0.51, 0.94; P-trend = 0.03), respectively. Associations for total fish, n-3 PUFA, EPA, and DPA consumption were similar but were not significant. Conclusion: High n-3 PUFA, especially marine n-3 PUFAs, and DHA consumption was associated with a lower risk of pancreatic cancer in a population with a large variation in fish consumption, although the data apply to only a portion of the JPHC study subjects. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition. Source

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