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Flowery Branch, GA, United States

Brown D.R.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Soares J.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Epping J.M.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Lankford T.J.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2012

Context: The goal of the systematic review described in this summary was to determine the effectiveness of stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity at the population level. This systematic review is an update of a Community Guide systematic review and Community Preventive Services Task Force recommendation completed in 2001. Evidence acquisition: Updated searches for literature published from 1980 to 2008 were conducted in 11 databases. Of 267 articles resulting from the literature search, 16 were selected for full abstraction, including the three studies from the original 2001 review. Standard Community Guide methods were used to conduct the systematic evidence review. Evidence synthesis: Physical activity outcomes were assessed using a variety of self-report measures with duration intervals ranging from 6 weeks to 4 years. Ten studies using comparable outcome measures documented a median absolute increase of 3.4 percentage points (interquartile interval: 2.4 to 4.2 percentage points), and a median relative increase of 6.7% (interquartile interval: 3.0% to 14.1%), in self-reported physical activity levels. The remaining six studies used alternative outcome measures: three evaluated changes in self-reported time spent in physical activity (median relative change, 4.4%; range of values, 3.1%-18.2%); two studies used a single outcome measure and found that participants reported being more active after the campaign than before it; and one study found that a mass media weight-loss program led to a self-reported increase in physical activity. Conclusions: The findings of this updated systematic review show that intervention effects, based wholly on self-reported measures, were modest and inconsistent. These findings did not lead the Task Force to change its earlier conclusion of insufficient evidence to determine the effectiveness of stand-alone mass media campaigns to increase physical activity. This paper also discusses areas needing future research to strengthen the evidence base. Finally, studies published between 2009 and 2011, after the Task Force finding was reached, and briefly summarized here, are shown to support that finding. Source


Lee L.M.,Epidemiology and Laboratory Services | Thacker S.B.,Epidemiology and Laboratory Services
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

The past decade has brought substantial changes in how data related to a community's health are collected, stored, and used to inform decisions about health interventions. Despite these changes, the purpose of public health surveillance has remained constant for more than a century. Public health surveillance is the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of health-related data with the a priori purpose of preventing or controlling disease or injury, or of identifying unusual events of public health importance, followed by the dissemination and use of information for public health action. Surveillance is an important and necessary contributor to knowledge of a community's health. The public health system is responsible for ensuring that public health surveillance is conducted with appropriate practices and safeguards in order to maintain the public's trust. © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Source


Kilmer G.,Rti International | Zhang X.,National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion | Elam-Evans L.,Epidemiology and Laboratory Services
American Journal of Preventive Medicine | Year: 2011

Background Clinical performance measures recommend that nondiabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) be screened for diabetes every 3 years. Purpose The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among U.S. adults aged <35 years with CHD and to determine factors associated with not receiving recommended diabetes screenings. Methods The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an annual state-based telephone survey of non-institutionalized U.S. adults. Information on prediabetes prevalence was collected for 33 states in 2008; data analysis was conducted in 2009. The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes among adults aged <35 years with CHD (n=20,618) and prevalence of diabetes screening among nondiabetic adults with CHD (n=14,335) were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate the odds of not being screened for diabetes in the past 3 years while controlling for other factors. Results Among adults with CHD, 30.7% (95% CI=29.4%, 32.1%) reported being diagnosed with diabetes and 10.0% (95% CI=9.2%, 10.8%) reported prediabetes. Among nondiabetic adults with CHD, 25.4% (95% CI=23.9%, 26.9%) reported not being screened for diabetes in the past 3 years. Those with no recent routine checkup and those with no health insurance had the highest odds of no recent diabetes screening. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes is substantial among adults with CHD and likely underestimated because of suboptimal screening. One of four nondiabetic adults with CHD reported not being screened for diabetes in the past 3 years. © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. All rights reserved. Source


Thacker S.B.,Epidemiology and Laboratory Services
Morbidity and mortality weekly report. Surveillance summaries (Washington, D.C. : 2002) | Year: 2012

In its landmark 1988 report, a committee of the Institute of Medicine highlighted assessment as one of the three core functions of public health along with policy development and assurance. The committee recommended that every public health agency regularly and systematically collect, assemble, analyze, and make available information on the health of the community, including statistics on health status, community health needs, and epidemiologic and other studies of health problems. Public health surveillance, often called the cornerstone of public health practice, is an essential element of the assessment function. Source


Zhao G.,Epidemiology and Laboratory Services | Zhao G.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Li C.,Epidemiology and Laboratory Services | Fulton J.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014

Background: Regular physical activity elicits multiple health benefits in the prevention and management of chronic diseases. We examined the mortality risks associated with levels of leisure-time aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity based on the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans among US adults. Methods: We analysed data from the 1999 to 2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey with linked mortality data obtained through 2006. Cox proportional HRs with 95% CIs were estimated to assess risks for all-causes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality associated with aerobic physical activity and muscle-strengthening activity. Results: Of 10 535 participants, 665 died (233 deaths from CVD) during an average of 4.8-year follow-up. Compared with participants who were physically inactive, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 0.64 (95% CI 0.52 to 0.79) among those who were physically active (engaging in ≥150 min/week of the equivalent moderate-intensity physical activity) and 0.72 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.97) among those who were insufficiently active (engaging in >0 to <150 min/week of the equivalent moderate-intensity physical activity). The adjusted HR for CVD mortality was 0.57 (95% CI 0.34 to 0.97) among participants who were insufficiently active and 0.69 (95% CI 0.43 to 1.12) among those who were physically active. Among adults who were insufficiently active, the adjusted HR for all-cause mortality was 44% lower by engaging in musclestrengthening activity ≥2 times/week. Conclusions: Engaging in aerobic physical activity ranging from insufficient activity to meeting the 2008 Guidelines reduces the risk of premature mortality among US adults. Engaging in muscle-strengthening activity ≥2 times/week may provide additional benefits among insufficiently active adults. Source

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