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Lynch J.A.,Dana-Farber Cancer Institute | Lynch J.A.,Center for Health Quality | Khoury M.J.,Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program | Borzecki A.,Center for Health Quality | And 6 more authors.
Genetics in Medicine | Year: 2013

Purpose: We examined hospital use of the epidermal growth factor receptor assay in patients with lung cancer in the United States. Our goal was to inform the development of a model to predict phase 3 translation of guideline-directed molecular diagnostic tests. Methods: This was a retrospective observational study. Using logistic regression, we analyzed the association between hospitals' institutional and regional characteristics and the likelihood that an epidermal growth factor receptor assay would be ordered. Results: Significant institutional predictors included affiliation with an academic medical center (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-1.83), participation in a National Cancer Institute clinical research cooperative group (odds ratio, 2.06, 1.66-2.55), and availability of positron emission tomography scan (odds ratio, 1.44, 1.07-1.94) and cardiothoracic surgery (odds ratio, 1.90, 1.52-2.37) services. Significant regional predictors included metropolitan county (odds ratio, 2.08, 1.48-2.91), population with above-average education (odds ratio, 1.46, 1.09-1.96), and population with above-average income (odds ratio, 1.46, 1.04-2.05). Distance from a National Cancer Institute cancer center was a negative predictor (odds ratio, 0.996, 0.995-0.998), with a 34% decrease in likelihood for every 100 miles. Conclusion: In 2010, only 12% of US acute-care hospitals ordered the epidermal growth factor receptor assay, suggesting that most patients with lung cancer did not have access to this test. This case study illustrated the need for: (i) increased dissemination and implementation research, and (ii) interventions to improve adoption of guideline-directed molecular diagnostic tests by community hospitals. © American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics.

Mahabir S.,Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program | Mahabir S.,NCI Inc | Baer D.J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Pfeiffer R.M.,NCI Inc | And 3 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of 8 weeks of no alcohol, low (1 drink or 15 g/day) and moderate (2 drinks or 30 g/day) alcohol consumption on markers of bone health: fasting serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), osteocalcin (OC), bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP), urine deoxypyridinoline (DPD) and helical peptide (HP) in postmenopausal women (n=51). Compared with no alcohol, 1 or 2 drinks/day for 8 weeks had no significant impact on any of the bone markers. Within each alcohol group, obese women had significantly lower serum 25(OH)D and higher DPD concentrations than normal weight women. Season significantly affected the concentrations of serum 25(OH)D, but there was no significant interaction between alcohol and season on serum 25(OH)D concentrations. Low or moderate alcohol consumption for 8 weeks had no significant impact on markers of bone health in postmenopausal women. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Ryan B.M.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zanetti K.A.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Zanetti K.A.,Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program | Robles A.I.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of colorectal adenoma and cancer; however, few key inflammatory genes mediating this relationship have been identified. In this study, we investigated the association of germline variation in innate immunity genes in relation to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Our study was based on the analysis of samples collected from the prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. We investigated the association between 196 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 20 key innate immunity genes with risk of advanced colorectal adenoma and cancer in 719 adenoma cases, 481 cancer cases and 719 controls. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). After Bonferroni correction, the AG/GG genotype of rs5995355, which is upstream of NCF4, was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 2.43, 95% CI = 1.73-3.39; p < 0.0001). NCF4 is part of the NAPDH complex, a key factor in biochemical pathways and the innate immune response. While not definitive, our analyses suggest that the variant allele does not affect expression of NCF4, but rather modulates activity of the NADPH complex. Additional studies on the functional consequences of rs5995355 in NCF4 may help to clarify the mechanistic link between inflammation and colorectal cancer. What's new? A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) known as rs5995355 in the gene NCF4, a member of the NADPH oxidase complex, is associated with increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. The NADPH system functions in the elimination of invading microorganisms and has never previously been linked to colorectal cancer. As this screen for colorectal adenoma and cancer-related gene variants reveals, however, the NCF4 germline SNP may share a unique association with colon cancer. The analysis suggests that the variant disrupts the functionality of the NADPH complex, possibly impeding the ability of neutrophils to repel infectious agents. © 2013 UICC.

Lam T.K.,U.S. National Cancer Institute | Lam T.K.,Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program | Freedman N.D.,Nutritional Epidemiology Branch | Fan J.-H.,Peking Union Medical College | And 4 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background: China has some of the highest incidence rates for gastric adenocarcinoma (GA) and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) in the world. Prospective studies suggested that vitamin C may reduce risks; however, associations are unclear because of limited sample size. Objective: The objective was to examine the relation between prediagnostic plasma vitamin C and the risk of GA and ESCC. Design: A case-cohort study was used to assess the association between prediagnostic plasma vitamin C and incidence of GA (n = 467) and ESCC (n = 618) in the General Population Nutrition Intervention Trial. With the use of multivariate Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated the HRs and 95% CIs. We also conducted a meta-analysis of the literature up to 1 October 2012 on the relation between circulating vitamin C and gastric cancer incidence. Two cohort studies and the current study were included to assess the body of evidence. Results: For GA, each 20-μmol/L increase in plasma vitamin C was associated with a 14% decrease in risk (HR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.96). Compared with individuals with low plasma vitamin C concentrations (≤28 μmol/L), those with normal concentrations (>28 μmol/L) had a 27% reduced risk of GA (HR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.94). No association between vitamin C concentrations and ESCC was seen. Meta-analysis showed that the risk of incident GA among those with the highest concentration of plasma vitamin C was 31% lower (random-effects-pooled-odds ratio 0.69; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.89) than those in the lowest category. Conclusion: Our data provide evidence that higher circulating vitamin C was associated with a reduced risk of incident GA, but no association was seen for ESCC. © 2013 American Society for Nutrition.

Peng B.,University of Houston | Chen H.-S.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Mechanic L.E.,Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program | Racine B.,Cornerstone Systems Northwest Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Bioinformatics | Year: 2013

Many simulation methods and programs have been developed to simulate genetic data of the human genome. These data have been widely used, for example, to predict properties of populations retrospectively or prospectively according to mathematically intractable genetic models, and to assist the validation, statistical inference and power analysis of a variety of statistical models. However, owing to the differences in type of genetic data of interest, simulation methods, evolutionary features, input and output formats, terminologies and assumptions for different applications, choosing the right tool for a particular study can be a resource-intensive process that usually involves searching, downloading and testing many different simulation programs. Genetic Simulation Resources (GSR) is a website provided by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) that aims to help researchers compare and choose the appropriate simulation tools for their studies. This website allows authors of simulation software to register their applications and describe them with well-defined attributes, thus allowing site users to search and compare simulators according to specified features. © 2013 The Author.

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