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Leggett C.,Epidemiology and Cancer Registry | Irwin M.,The New School | Griffith J.,University of Manitoba | Xue L.,Cancercare Manitoba | Fradette K.,Cancercare Manitoba
International Journal of Public Health | Year: 2012

Objectives Identifying multi-level factors affecting physical activity (PA) levels among adolescents is essential to increasing activity to promote health within this population. This study examines the associations between PA and 11 independent factors among Manitoba high school students. Methods The sample included 31,202 grade 9-12 students who completed the Manitoba Youth Health Survey. Associations between PA and independent factors were examined separately and through multivariate regression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results Perception of athletic ability, school location, parental encouragement and number of active friends were strong predictors of activity for moderately active and active males and females. Grade was a significant predictor of PA for females at both levels of activity but only significant for males when comparing active to inactive students. Perception of schoolwork and means of transport were minimally associated with PA. Conclusions Results highlight the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence to increase PA among youth. Programs should focus on older students, females and those who are inactive or moderately active. In addition, social modeling of PA and increasing self-efficacy around activity should be encouraged. © Swiss School of Public Health 2011.


Campbell H.S.,University of Waterloo | Sanson-Fisher R.,University of Newcastle | Turner D.,Epidemiology and Cancer Registry | Turner D.,University of Manitoba | And 3 more authors.
Supportive Care in Cancer | Year: 2010

Purpose: This study aims to develop a psychometrically rigorous instrument to measure the unmet needs of adult cancer survivors who are 1 to 5 years post-cancer diagnosis. "Unmet needs" distinguishes between problems which survivors experience and problems which they desire help in managing. Methods: The survey was developed from a comprehensive literature review, qualitative analysis of the six most important unmet needs of 71 cancer survivors, review of the domains and items by survivors and experts, cognitive interviews and a pilot test of 100 survivors. A stratified random sample of 550 cancer survivors, selected from a population-based Cancer Registry, completed a mailed survey to establish reliability and validity. Results: The final 89-item Survivors Unmet Needs Survey (SUNS) has high acceptability, item test-retest reliability and internal consistency (Chronbach's alpha 0.990), face, content and construct validity. Five subscales measure Emotional Health needs (33 items, 19.4% of variance), Access and Continuity of Care (22 items, 15.1%), Relationships (15 items, 12.1%), Financial Concerns (11 items, 10.3%) and Information needs (eight items, 8.1% of the variance). Conclusions: This instrument has strong psychometric properties and is useful for determining the prevalence and predictors of cancer survivors' unmet needs across types of cancer, length of survivorship and socio-demographic characteristics. Use of the SUNS will enable more effective targeting of programmes and services and guide policy and health planning decisions. Relevance: This study is an important step toward evidence-based planning and management of problems which the growing survivor population requires assistance in managing. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.


Liu H.-W.,University of Calgary | Nugent Z.,Epidemiology and Cancer Registry | Clayton R.,University of Calgary | Dunscombe P.,University of Calgary | And 2 more authors.
Acta Oncologica | Year: 2014

Purpose. To evaluate the clinical impact of using the deterministic dose calculation algorithm, Acuros XB, for early stage lung cancer patients undergoing stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT). Material and methods. Seventy-seven stage I non-small cell lung cancer patients who underwent lung SBRT from 2008 to 2012 at our center were included in this study. All treatment plans originally calculated by the anisotropic analytical algorithm (AAA) were recalculated using the AAA and Acuros XB algorithms with identical monitor units and beam arrangements. The dose, dose distribution, conformality number (CN) and heterogeneity index (HI) of the target were determined for each plan. A paired matched t-test was used to evaluate the difference between the mean dose, the dose distribution, and the CN and HI for the target. The importance of tumor (volume, location), patient (pulmonary functional, body mass index) and treatment (number of SBRT beams) on the dose distributions obtained from the two algorithms was statistically determined using linear regression analyses. Results. The mean target dose was same for both algorithms. Compared to AAA, a small and significant difference in dose distribution in the target was found for the Acuros XB algorithm, resulting in lower conformity (-2.1%, p < 0.0001) and higher heterogeneity (p < 0.0001) of dose. Single logistic regression identified pulmonary function, number of beams and target location as being correlated with the difference of CN between the two calculations. Multivariate analysis indicated that the patient's pulmonary function (p = 0.0296) was the only predictor for the difference in conformality between the two dose calculation algorithms. Conclusions. In lung SBRT, the patient's pulmonary function is responsible for the difference in target dose distribution between the Acuros XB and AAA algorithms. The Acuros XB algorithm could be used to advantage in patients with compromised pulmonary function based on its accurate modeling of lung tissue in comparison to AAA. © 2014 Informa Healthcare.


Myers C.,Speech Language Pathology | Kerr P.,University of Manitoba | Cooke A.,Radiation Oncology | Bammeke F.,University of Manitoba | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2012

Purpose: To report survival and longitudinal functional outcomes after radiation or chemoradiation in advanced-stage cancers of the oropharynx. Methods: A population-based cohort of 89 patients with stage III and IV oropharygeal carcinoma treated from 2003 to 2008 with conformal radiation or chemoradiation was followed. Patients were assessed with a standardized prospective clinical functional outcomes protocol pretreatment and at regular intervals posttreatment. The standard clinical functional outcomes protocol followed: performance status (Karnofsky Performance Status [KPS], Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group [ECOG]); swallowing status (performance status scale for head and neck cancer patients [PSS-HN] and Royal Brisbane Hospital Swallowing Scale [RBHOMS]); and speech (PSS-HN and Voice Handicap Index-10 [VHI-10]). Results: The primary site was the base of the tongue in 38 (43%) and tonsil or soft palate in 51 (57%) patients. Chemotherapy was used in 73%. The median follow-up was 3.4 years. At 3 years, overall survival was 72.3% and disease-free survival was 71.8%. Function reached a nadir at 3 months. At 36 months, the KPS was 90 or better in 76% and the ECOG was 0 in 75%. Total or partial feeding tube dependency ranged from 46% at 3 months to 3% at 2 years. Oral diet texture showed prolonged impairment, with 85% of survivors requiring a soft or semisolid diet with fluids at 36 months. Sixty-two percent were able to eat in public without restriction. Conclusions: The majority of patients will have a good functional outcome after radiation or chemoradiation for advanced oropharyngeal carcinoma. We now have a functional benchmark to which we can compare the results of primary surgery and newer treatment techniques, such as intensity-modulated radiation treatment. © 2012 The Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.


Kerr P.,University of Manitoba | Taylor S.M.,Dalhousie University | Rigby M.,Dalhousie University | Myers C.,Speech Language Pathology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2012

Objective: To compare the laryngeal preservation rates and voice outcomes after treatment of early glottic cancer between transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) and radiotherapy (RT). Design: Multicenter, retrospective consecutive cohort of stage 1 and 2 glottic carcinoma treated with TLM or RT. Setting: Three Canadian academic cancer centres. Methods and Main Outcome Measures: The patients were those of the regional cancer registries associated with each of the participating universities between 2002 and 2010. The primary oncologic end point was organ preservation. The primary functional outcome measure was the Voice Handicap Index (VHI-10). Results: A total of 234 patients were treated for early glottic cancer (143 TLM, 91 RT). At 2 years, the laryngeal preservation rate for stage 1 disease was 100% TLM and 92% RT (p < .004); for stage 2 disease, it was 100% TLM and 88% RT (p = not significant). There was only one laryngectomy in the TLM group over 5 years posttreatment. There were functional data on 132 patients (83 TLM, 49 RT). Median VHI-10 scores were inferior for laser patients at all three time intervals (6, 12, and 24-48 months posttreament) despite a stage bias in favour of TLM (range of median VHI score over time intervals: TLM = 9.5-12, RT = 3.5-8; p = .01-.08). However, theses scores represent mild disability in both groups. Conclusions: TLM patients have poorer voice quality than RT patients. However, the advantages of TLM in most patients outweigh the degree of voice handicap. Organ preservation rates for TLM were better than or equal to those of RT for both stage 1 and 2 glottic cancer. © 2012 The Canadian Society of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery.

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