Epidemiology and Biostatistics and.
PubMed | Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Epidemiology and Biostatistics and., Iowa State University, University of Leeds and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of clinical nutrition | Year: 2015
Previous studies suggest that appetite may be dysregulated at low levels of activity, creating an energy imbalance that results in weight gain.The aim was to examine the relation between energy intake, physical activity, appetite, and weight gain during a 1-y follow-up period in a large sample of adults.Participants included 421 individuals (mean SD age: 27.6 3.8 y). Measurements included the following: energy intake with the use of interviewer-administered dietary recalls and calculated by using changes in body composition and energy expenditure, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) with the use of an arm-based monitor, body composition with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and questionnaire-derived perceptions of dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and control of eating. Participants were grouped at baseline into quintiles of MVPA (min/d) by sex. Measurements were repeated every 3 mo for 1 y.At baseline, an inverse relation existed between body weight and activity groups, with the least-active group (15.7 9.9 min MVPA/d, 6062 1778 steps/d) having the highest body weight (86.3 13.2 kg) and the most-active group (174.5 60.5 min MVPA/d, 10260 3087 steps/d) having the lowest body weight (67.5 11.0 kg). A positive relation was observed between calculated energy intake and activity group, except in the lowest quintile of activity. The lowest physical activity group reported higher levels of disinhibition (P = 0.07) and cravings for savory foods (P = 0.03) compared with the group with the highest level of physical activity. Over 1 y of follow-up, the lowest activity group gained the largest amount of fat mass (1.7 0.3 kg) after adjustment for change in MVPA and baseline fat mass. The odds of gaining >3% of fat mass were between 1.8 and 3.8 times as high for individuals in the least-active group as for those in the middle activity group.These results suggest that low levels of physical activity are a risk factor for fat mass gain. In the current sample, a threshold for achieving energy balance occurred at an activity level corresponding to 7116 steps/d, an amount achievable by most adults. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01746186.
PubMed | University of California at San Francisco and Epidemiology and Biostatistics and.
Type: | Journal: Pediatrics | Year: 2016
There are limited epidemiologic data on persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). We sought to describe the incidence and 1-year mortality of PPHN by its underlying cause, and to identify risk factors for PPHN in a contemporary population-based dataset.The California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development maintains a database linking maternal and infant hospital discharges, readmissions, and birth and death certificates from 1 year before to 1 year after birth. We searched the database (2007-2011) for cases of PPHN (identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes), including infants 34 weeks gestational age without congenital heart disease. Multivariate Poisson regression was used to identify risk factors associated with PPHN; results are presented as risk ratios, 95% confidence intervals.Incidence of PPHN was 0.18% (3277 cases/1781156 live births). Infection was the most common cause (30.0%). One-year mortality was 7.6%; infants with congenital anomalies of the respiratory tract had the highest mortality (32.0%). Risk factors independently associated with PPHN included gestational age <37 weeks, black race, large and small for gestational age, maternal preexisting and gestational diabetes, obesity, and advanced age. Female sex, Hispanic ethnicity, and multiple gestation were protective against PPHN.This risk factor profile will aid clinicians identifying infants at increased risk for PPHN, as they are at greater risk for rapid clinical deterioration.
PubMed | Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Johns Hopkins University, Epidemiology and Biostatistics and. and Radiation Oncology.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Neurosurgical focus | Year: 2017
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of symptomatic vertebral body compression fractures (VCFs) requiring kyphoplasty or surgery in patients treated with 24-Gy single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). METHODS This retrospective analysis included all patients who had been treated with 24-Gy, single-fraction, image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for histologically confirmed solid tumor metastases over an 8-year period (2005-2013) at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center. Charts and imaging studies were reviewed for post-SRS kyphoplasty or surgery for mechanical instability. A Spinal Instability Neoplastic Score (SINS) was calculated for each patient both at the time of SRS and at the time of intervention for VCF. RESULTS Three hundred twenty-three patients who had undergone single-fraction SRS between C-1 and L-5 were included in this analysis. The cumulative incidence of VCF 5 years after SRS was 7.2% (95% CI 4.1-10.2), whereas that of death following SRS at the same time point was 82.5% (95% CI 77.5-87.4). Twenty-six patients with 36 SRS-treated levels progressed to symptomatic VCF requiring treatment with kyphoplasty (6 patients), surgery (10 patients), or both (10 patients). The median time to symptomatic VCF was 13 months. Seven patients developed VCF at 11 levels adjacent to the SRS-treated level. Fractured levels had no evidence of tumor progression. The median SINS changed from 6.5 at SRS (interquartile range [IQR] 4.3-8.8) to 11.5 at stabilization (IQR 9-13). In patients without prior stabilization at the level of SRS, there was an association between the SINS and the time to fracture. CONCLUSIONS Five years after ablative single-fraction SRS to spinal lesions, the cumulative incidence of symptomatic VCF at the treated level without tumor recurrence was 7.2%. Higher SINSs at the time of SRS correlated with earlier fractures.
PubMed | San Francisco General Hospital, University of Michigan, Epidemiology and Biostatistics and. and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN | Year: 2016
The population incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI has risen substantially in the last decade in the United States, and factors associated with this temporal trend are not well known.We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a United States nationally representative database of hospitalizations from 2007 to 2009. We used validated International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes to identify hospitalizations with dialysis-requiring AKI and then, selected the diagnostic and procedure codes most highly associated with dialysis-requiring AKI in 2009. We applied multivariable logistic regression adjusting for demographics and used a backward selection technique to identify a set of diagnoses or a set of procedures that may be a driver for this changing risk in dialysis-requiring AKI.From 2007 to 2009, the population incidence of dialysis-requiring AKI increased by 11% per year (95% confidence interval, 1.07 to 1.16; P<0.001). Using backward selection, we found that the temporal trend in the six diagnoses, septicemia, hypertension, respiratory failure, coagulation/hemorrhagic disorders, shock, and liver disease, sufficiently and fully accounted for the temporal trend in dialysis-requiring AKI. In contrast, temporal trends in 15 procedures most commonly associated with dialysis-requiring AKI did not account for the increasing dialysis-requiring AKI trend.The increasing risk of dialysis-requiring AKI among hospitalized patients in the United States was highly associated with the changing burden of six acute and chronic conditions but not with surgeries and procedures.
PubMed | University of California at San Diego, Epidemiology and Biostatistics and., University of California at San Francisco and Obstetrics
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatrics | Year: 2016
To assess the rates of mortality and major morbidity among extremely preterm infants born in California and to examine the rates of neonatal interventions and timing of death at each gestational age.A retrospective cohort study of all California live births from 2007 through 2011 linked to vital statistics and hospital discharge records, whose best-estimated gestational age at birth was 22 through 28 weeks. Major morbidities were based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Survival beyond the first calendar day of life and procedure codes were used to assess attempted resuscitation after birth.A total of 6009 infants born at 22 through 28 weeks gestation were included. Survival to 1 year for all live births ranged from 6% at 22 weeks to 94% at 28 weeks. Seventy-three percent of deaths occurred within the first week of life. Major morbidity was present in 80% of all infants, and multiple major morbidities were present in 66% of 22- and 23-week infants. Rates of resuscitation at 22, 23, and 24 weeks were 21%, 64%, and 93%, respectively. Survival after resuscitation was 31%, 42%, and 64% among 22-, 23-, and 24-week infants, respectively. Improved survival was associated with increased birth weight, female sex, and cesarean delivery (P < .01) for resuscitated 22-, 23-, and 24-week infants.In a population-based study of extreme prematurity, infants 24 weeks gestation are at highest risk of death or major morbidity. These data can help inform recommendations and decision-making for extremely preterm births.
PubMed | Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Yale University and Epidemiology and Biostatistics and.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of neurosurgery | Year: 2015
While most meningiomas are benign, 1%-3% display anaplastic features, with little current understanding regarding the molecular mechanisms underlying their formation. In a large single-center cohort, the authors tested the hypothesis that two distinct subtypes of anaplastic meningiomas, those that arise de novo and those that progress from lower grade tumors, exist and exhibit different clinical behavior.Pathology reports and clinical data of 37 patients treated between 1999 and 2012 for anaplastic meningioma at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were divided into those whose tumors arose de novo and those whose tumors progressed from previously documented benign or atypical meningiomas.Overall, the median age at diagnosis was 59 years and 57% of patients were female. Most patients (38%) underwent 2 craniotomies (range 1-5 surgeries) aimed at gross-total resection (GTR; 59%), which afforded better survival when compared with subtotal resection according to Kaplan-Meier estimates (median overall survival [OS] 3.2 vs 1.3 years, respectively; p = 0.04, log-rank test). Twenty-three patients (62%) presented with apparently de novo anaplastic meningiomas. Compared with patients whose tumors had progressed from a lower grade, those patients with de novo tumors were significantly more likely to be female (70% vs 36%, respectively; p = 0.04), experience better survival (median OS 3.0 vs 2.4 years, respectively; p = 0.03, log-rank test), and harbor cerebral hemispheric as opposed to skull base tumors (91% vs 43%, respectively; p = 0.002).Based on this single-center experience at MSKCC, anaplastic meningiomas, similar to glial tumors, can arise de novo or progress from lower grade tumors. These tumor groups appear to have distinct clinical behavior. De novo tumors may well be molecularly distinct, which is under further investigation. Aggressive GTR appears to confer an OS advantage in patients with anaplastic meningioma, and this is likely independent of tumor progression status. Similarly, those patients with de novo tumors experience a survival advantage likely independent of extent of resection.
PubMed | Epidemiology and Biostatistics and., Center for Health and Community, Kaiser Permanente, Emory University and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pediatrics | Year: 2014
The neighborhoods in which children live, play, and eat provide an environmental context that may influence obesity risk and ameliorate or exacerbate health disparities. The current study examines whether neighborhood characteristics predict obesity in a prospective cohort of girls.Participants were 174 girls (aged 8-10 years at baseline), a subset from the Cohort Study of Young Girls Nutrition, Environment, and Transitions. Trained observers completed street audits within a 0.25-mile radius around each girls residence. Four scales (food and service retail, recreation, walkability, and physical disorder) were created from 40 observed neighborhood features. BMI was calculated from clinically measured height and weight. Obesity was defined as BMI-for-age 95%. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to examine neighborhood influences on obesity risk over 4 years of follow-up, controlling for race/ethnicity, pubertal status, and baseline BMI. Fully adjusted models also controlled for household income, parent education, and a census tract measure of neighborhood socioeconomic status.A 1-SD increase on the food and service retail scale was associated with a 2.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.42 to 3.61; P < .001) increased odds of being obese. A 1-SD increase in physical disorder was associated with a 2.41 (95% confidence interval, 1.31 to 4.44; P = .005) increased odds of being obese. Other neighborhood scales were not associated with risk for obesity.Neighborhood food and retail environment and physical disorder around a girls home predict risk for obesity across the transition from late childhood to adolescence.