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Cruz A.A.V.,University of Sao Paulo | Alencar V.M.,University of Sao Paulo | Medina N.H.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center | Volkmer-Ribeiro C.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | And 2 more authors.
Eye (Basingstoke)

PurposeTo describe an extremely uncommon outbreak of eye lesions in a specific area of the Brazilian Amazonia.MethodsProspective noncomparative case series. Fifty-nine patients who developed eye lesions after swimming in the Araguaia river of Tocantins state in Brazil were examined. A team of ophthalmologists equipped with a slit-lamp, gonioscopic lenses, and indirect ophthalmoscopy performed full eye examination. Analysis of the flora and fauna of the river water was undertaken by a group of experts.Results and ConclusionsEighty-three eyes were affected. The most common lesions were corneal opacities seen in 34 eyes and conjunctival nodules diagnosed in 12 eyes. Severe visual acuity loss was detected in seven children with unilateral anterior chamber lesions. Spicules of the sponge species Drulia uruguayensis and Drulia ctenosclera were found inside three blind eyes that have been enucleated for diagnostic purposes. All eye lesions could be attributed to an outbreak of foreign bodies from fresh water sponges. Organic enrichment of the water resulting from the absence of sanitation probably was the key factor, which initiated a cycle of ecological imbalance that provoked human disease. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Romano A.P.M.,Secretariat for Health Surveillance | Romano A.P.M.,Federal University of Goais | Costa Z.G.A.,Secretariat for Health Surveillance | Ramos D.G.,Secretariat for Health Surveillance | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Due to the risk of severe vaccine-associated adverse events, yellow fever vaccination in Brazil is only recommended in areas considered at risk for disease. From September 2008 through June 2009, two outbreaks of yellow fever in previously unvaccinated populations resulted in 21 confirmed cases with 9 deaths (case-fatality, 43%) in the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul and 28 cases with 11 deaths (39%) in Sao Paulo state. Epizootic deaths of non-human primates were reported before and during the outbreak. Over 5.5 million doses of yellow fever vaccine were administered in the two most affected states. Vaccine-associated adverse events were associated with six deaths due to acute viscerotropic disease (0.8 deaths per million doses administered) and 45 cases of acute neurotropic disease (5.6 per million doses administered). Yellow fever vaccine recommendations were revised to include areas in Brazil previously not considered at risk for yellow fever. Source

Macartney K.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center | Mclntyre P.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center
Sao Paulo Medical Journal

BACKGROUND: Live attenuated varicella vaccines for the prevention of varicella (chickenpox) has been demonstrated both in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and in population-based immunisation programmes in countries such as the United States. However, many countries do not routinely immunise children against varicella, and exposures continue to occur. Although the disease is often mild, complications such as secondary bacterial infection, pneumonitis and encephalitis occur in about 1% of cases, usually leading to hospitalisation. The use of varicella vaccine in persons who have recently been exposed to the varicella zoster virus has been studied as a form of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP). OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of vaccines for use as PEP for the prevention of varicella in children and adults. CRITERIA FOR CONSIDERING STUDIES FOR THIS REVIEW: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2008, Issue 1); MEDLINE (1966 to February 2008); and EMBASE (January 1990 to February 2008). SELECTION CRITERIA: RCTs and guasi-RCTs of varicella vaccine for PEP compared with placebo or no intervention. The outcome measures were efficacy in prevention of clinical cases and/or laboratory-confirmed clinical cases and adverse effects following vaccination. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently extracted and analysed data using Review Manager software. MAIN RESULTS:Three studies involving 110 healthy children who were siblings of household contacts were identified as suitable for inclusion. The studies varied inguality, study design, vaccine used, and outcomes measured and, as such, were not suitable for meta-analysis. Overall, 13 out of 56 vaccine recipients (18%) developed varicella compared with 42 out of 54 placebo (or no vaccine) recipients (78%). Of the vaccine recipients who developed varicella, the majority only had mild disease (with less than 50 skin lesions). In the three studies, most subjects received PEP within three days following exposure; too few subjects were vaccinated four to five days post exposure to ascertain the efficacy of vaccine given more than three days after exposure. No included studies reported on adverse events following immunisation. AUTHORS CONCLUSIONS:These small trials suggest varicella vaccine administered within three days to children following household contact with a varicella case reduces infection rates and severity of cases. No RCTs for adolescents or adults were identified. However safety was not adeguately addressed. Source

Ribeiro A.F.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center | Ribeiro A.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Ribeiro A.F.,Institute of Lnfectious Diseases Emilio Ribas | Pellini A.C.G.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center | And 9 more authors.

This case-control study aimed to assess the risk factors for death from influenza A(H1N1) pdm09 in patients with laboratory confirmation, who had severe acute respiratory illness-SARI and were hospitalized between June 28th and August 29th 2009, in the metropolitan regions of São Paulo and Campinas, Brazil.Medical charts of all the 193 patients who died (cases) and the 386 randomly selected patients who recovered (controls) were investigated in 177 hospitals. Household interviews were conducted with those who had survived and the closest relative of those who had died. 73.6%of cases and 38.1%of controls were at risk of developing influenza-related complications. The 18-to-59-year age group (OR = 2.31, 95%CI: 1.31-4.10 (reference up to 18 years of age)), presence of risk conditions for severity of influenza (OR = 1.99, 95%CI: 1.11-3.57, if one or OR = 6.05, 95%CI: 2.76-13.28, if more than one), obesity (OR = 2.73, 95%CI: 1.28-5.83), immunosuppression (OR = 3.43, 95%CI: 1.28-9.19), and search for previous care associated with the hospitalization (OR = 3.35, 95%CI: 1.75-6.40) were risk factors for death. Antiviral treatment performed within 72 hours of the onset of symptoms (OR = 0.17, 95%CI: 0.08-0.37, if within 48hours, and OR = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.11-0.81, if between 48 and 72 hours) was protective against death. The identification of high-risk patients and early treatment are important factors for reducing morbi-mortality from influenza. © 2015 Ribeiro et al. Source

dos Santos Nery T.C.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center | Christensen R.A.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center | Pereira F.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center | Leite A.P.,Epidemiological Surveillance Center
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health

Increasing urbanization across the globe, combined with an increased use of chemicals in various regions, contributes to several environmental events that influence environmental health. Measures that identify environmental factors and events should be introduced to facilitate epidemiological investigations by health services. The Brazilian Ministry of Health published a new list o f notifiable diseases on 25 January 2011 and introduced environmental events as a new category of notifiable occurrences. The Center for Epidemiologic Surveillance in State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, created an online notification system that highlights "environmental events", such as exposure to chemical contaminants, drinking water with contaminants outside of the recommended range, contaminated air, and natural or anthropogenic disasters. This paper analyzed 300 notifications received between May 2011 and May 2012. It reports the number of notifications with event classifications and analyzes the events relating to accidents with chemical substances. This paper describes the characteristics of the accidents that involved chemical substances, methods used, types of substances, exposed population, and measures adopted. The online notification of environmental events increases the analysis of the main events associated with diseases related to environmental chemicals; thus, it facilitates the adoption of public policies to prevent environmental health problems. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Source

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