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Moja L.,University of Milan | Moja L.,IRCCS Galeazzi Orthopedic Institute | Piatti A.,Epidemiological Observatory | Pecoraro V.,University of Milan | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: To assess the relationship between surgical delay and mortality in elderly patients with hip fracture. Systematic review and meta-analysis of retrospective and prospective studies published from 1948 to 2011. Medline (from 1948), Embase (from 1974) and CINAHL (from 1982), and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals for each study were extracted and pooled with a random effects model. Heterogeneity, publication bias, Bayesian analysis, and meta-regression analyses were done. Criteria for inclusion were retro- and prospective elderly population studies, patients with operated hip fractures, indication of timing of surgery and survival status. Methodology/Principal Findings: There were 35 independent studies, with 191,873 participants and 34,448 deaths. The majority considered a cut-off between 24 and 48 hours. Early hip surgery was associated with a lower risk of death (pooled odds ratio (OR) 0.74, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.67 to 0.81; P<0.000) and pressure sores (0.48, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.60; P<0.000). Meta-analysis of the adjusted prospective studies gave similar results. The Bayesian probability predicted that about 20% of future studies might find that early surgery is not beneficial for decreasing mortality. None of the confounders (e.g. age, sex, data source, baseline risk, cut-off points, study location, quality and year) explained the differences between studies. Conclusions/Significance: Surgical delay is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death and pressure sores. Conservative timing strategies should be avoided. Orthopaedic surgery services should ensure the majority of patients are operated within one or two days. © 2012 Moja et al. Source

Colais P.,Regional Health Service | Faustini A.,Regional Health Service | Stafoggia M.,Regional Health Service | Berti G.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 9 more authors.
Epidemiology | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Although numerous studies have provided evidence of an association between ambient air pollution and acute cardiac morbidity, little is known regarding susceptibility factors. METHODS: We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study in 9 Italian cities between 2001 and 2005 to estimate the short-term association between airborne particles with aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10) and cardiac hospital admissions, and to identify susceptible groups. We estimated associations between daily PM10 and all cardiac diseases, acute coronary syndrome, arrhythmias and conduction disorders, and heart failure for 167,895 hospitalized subjects ≥65 years of age. Effect modification was assessed for age, sex, and a priori-defined hospital diagnoses (mainly cardiovascular and respiratory conditions) from the previous 2 years as susceptibility factors. RESULTS: The increased risk of cardiac admissions was 1.0% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.7% to 1.4%) per 10 μg/m PM10 at lag 0. The effect was slightly higher for heart failure (lag 0, 1.4% [0.7% to 2.0%]) and acute coronary syndrome (lag 0-1, 1.1% [0.4% to 1.9%]) than for arrhythmias (lag 0, 1.0% [0.2% to 1.8%]). Women were at higher risk of heart failure (2.0% [1.2% to 2.8%]; test for interaction, P = 0.022), whereas men were at higher risk of arrhythmias (1.9% [0.8% to 3.0%]; test for interaction, P = 0.020). Subjects aged 75-84 years were at higher risk of admissions for coronary events (2.6% [1.5% to 3.8%]; test for interaction, P = 0.001). None of the identified chronic conditions was a clear marker of susceptibility. CONCLUSIONS: An important effect of PM10 on hospitalizations for cardiac diseases was found in Italian cities. Sex and older age were susceptibility factors. © 2012 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc. Source

Ruggenenti P.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Porrini E.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Motterlini N.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | Perna A.,Mario Negri Institute for Pharmacological Research | And 11 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Nephrology | Year: 2012

Micro- or macroalbuminuria is associated with increased cardiovascular risk factors among patients with type 2 diabetes, but whether albuminuria within the normal range predicts long-term cardiovascular risk is unknown. We evaluated the relationships between albuminuria and cardiovascular events in 1208 hypertensive, normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes from the BErgamo NEphrologic Diabetes Complication Trial (BENEDICT), all of whom received angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) therapy at the end of the trial and were followed for a median of 9.2 years. The main outcome was time to the first of fatal or nonfatal myocardial infarction; stroke; coronary, carotid, or peripheral artery revascularization; or hospitalization for heart failure. Overall, 189 (15.6%) of the patients experienced a main outcome event (2.14 events/100 patient-years); 24 events were fatal. Albuminuria independently predicted events (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.08). Second-degree polynomial multivariable analysis showed a continuous nonlinear relationship between albuminuria and events without thresholds. Considering the entire study population, even albuminuria at 1-2 μg/min was significantly associated with increased risk compared with albuminuria <1 μg/min (HR, 1.04; 95%CI, 1.02-1.07). This relationship was similar in the subgroup originally randomly assigned to non-ACEI therapy. Among those originally receiving ACEI therapy, however, the event rate was uniformly low and was not significantly associated with albuminuria. Taken together, among normoalbuminuric patients with type 2 diabetes, any degree of measurable albuminuria bears significant cardiovascular risk. The association with risk is continuous but is lost with early ACEI therapy. Copyright © 2012 by the American Society of Nephrology. Source

Sansone V.C.,University of Milan | Meroni R.,University of Milan Bicocca | Boria P.,Private Practice | Pisani S.,Epidemiological Observatory | Maiorano E.,University of Milan
Rheumatology International | Year: 2014

Calcifying tendinopathy (CT) of the shoulder is a common painful disorder, although the etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Recent theories about the role of excessive mechanical load in the genesis of CT have been proposed. Driven by the interest for these new theories, we investigated the hypothesis of a relationship between work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm, considered a potential cause of shoulder overload, and the presence of shoulder CT. A secondary aim was to obtain data on CT prevalence in a female sample from the working-age general population, as little data currently exist. 199 supermarket cashiers and 304 female volunteers recruited from the general population underwent a high-resolution ultrasonography of the rotator cuffs of both shoulders, and the presence of tendinopathies, with or without calcification, was recorded. The prevalence of calcific tendinopathy was 22.6 % in the cashiers group and 24.4 % in the control group. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of calcifications between the two groups (p = 0.585), either for the dominant shoulder [OR = 0.841 (95 % CI 0.534–1.326)] or for the non-dominant shoulder [OR = 0.988 (95 % CI 0.582–1.326)]. We observed bilateral calcifications in 8.5 % of cashiers, and 9.6 % of controls, and an increase in prevalence of CT with age in both groups. Work-related repetitive movements of the upper arm did not induce a higher prevalence of shoulder CT compared with the female sample from the general population. If CT etiopathogenesis is related to mechanical load, CT onset may be influenced not only by loading history, but also by individual factors.Level of evidence Prognosis study, Level II. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Chiusolo M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Cadum E.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Stafoggia M.,Rome E Local Health Authority | Galassi C.,Cancer Epidemiology Unit | And 11 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2011

Background: Several studies have shown an association between nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) and mortality. In Italy, the EpiAir multicentric study, "Air Pollution and Health: Epidemiological Surveillance and Primary Prevention," investigated short-term health effects of air pollution, including NO 2. Objectives: To study the individual susceptibility, we evaluated the association between NO 2 and cause-specific mortality, investigating individual sociodemographic features and chronic/acute medical conditions as potential effect modifiers. Methods: We considered 276,205 natural deaths of persons > 35 years of age, resident in 10 Italian cities, and deceased between 2001 and 2005. We chose a time-stratified case-crossover analysis to evaluate the short-term effects of NO 2 on natural, cardiac, cerebrovascular, and respiratory mortality. For each subject, we collected information on sociodemographic features and hospital admissions in the previous 2 years. Fixed monitors provided daily concentrations of NO 2, particulate matter ≤ 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10) and ozone (O 3). Results: We found statistically significant associations with a 10-μg/m 3 increase of NO 2 for natural mortality [2.09% for lag 0-5; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-3.24], for cardiac mortality (2.63% for lag 0-5; 95% CI, 1.53-3.75), and for respiratory mortality (3.48% for lag 1-5; 95% CI, 0.75-6.29). These associations were independent from those of PM 10 and O 3. Stronger associations were estimated for subjects with at least one hospital admission in the 2 previous years and for subjects with three or more specific chronic conditions. Some cardiovascular conditions (i.e., ischemic heart disease, pulmonary circulation impairment, heart conduction disorders, heart failure) and diabetes appeared to confer a strong susceptibility to air pollution. Conclusions: Our results suggest significant and likely independent effects of NO 2 on natural, cardiac, and respiratory mortality, particularly among subjects with specific cardiovascular preexisting chronic conditions and diabetes. Source

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