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Huang W.T.,Epidemic Intelligence Center
Euro surveillance : bulletin européen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin | Year: 2010

From 16 November 2009 to 22 January 2010, Taiwan investigated 23 clusters of mass psychogenic illness after vaccination (MPIV) in the nationwide in-school vaccination programme against the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1). The median age of the 350 ill students (68% female) was 13 years. Intense media coverage of these events has driven public concerns about the safety of the pandemic influenza vaccine. In the future, countries should incorporate surveillance and communication strategies for MPIV in their pandemic preparedness plans. Source


Glasser J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Taneri D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Feng Z.,Purdue University | Chuang J.-H.,Epidemic Intelligence Center | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Because they can generate comparable predictions, mathematical models are ideal tools for evaluating alternative drug or vaccine allocation strategies. To remain credible, however, results must be consistent. Authors of a recent assessment of possible influenza vaccination strategies conclude that older children, adolescents, and young adults are the optimal targets, no matter the objective, and argue for vaccinating them. Authors of two earlier studies concluded, respectively, that optimal targets depend on objectives and cautioned against changing policy. Which should we believe? Methods and Findings: In matrices whose elements are contacts between persons by age, the main diagonal always predominates, reflecting contacts between contemporaries. Indirect effects (e.g., impacts of vaccinating one group on morbidity or mortality in others) result from off-diagonal elements. Mixing matrices based on periods in proximity with others have greater sub- and super-diagonals, reflecting contacts between parents and children, and other off-diagonal elements (reflecting, e.g., age-independent contacts among co-workers), than those based on face-to-face conversations. To assess the impact of targeted vaccination, we used a time-usage study's mixing matrix and allowed vaccine efficacy to vary with age. And we derived mortality rates either by dividing observed deaths attributed to pneumonia and influenza by average annual cases from a demographically-realistic SEIRS model or by multiplying those rates by ratios of (versus adding to them differences between) pandemic and pre-pandemic mortalities. Conclusions: In our simulations, vaccinating older children, adolescents, and young adults averts the most cases, but vaccinating either younger children and older adults or young adults averts the most deaths, depending on the age distribution of mortality. These results are consistent with those of the earlier studies. Source


Fu Y.-c.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Wang D.-W.,Academia Sinica, Taiwan | Chuang J.-H.,Epidemic Intelligence Center | Chuang J.-H.,National Yang Ming University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Recent studies of infectious diseases have attempted to construct more realistic parameters of interpersonal contact patterns from diary-approach surveys. To ensure that such diary-based contact patterns provide accurate baseline data for policy implementation in densely populated Taiwan, we collected contact diaries from a national sample, using 3-stage systematic probability sampling and rigorous in-person interviews. A representative sample of 1,943 contact diaries recorded a total of 24,265 wide-range, face-to-face interpersonal contacts during a 24-hour period. Nearly 70% of the contacts occurred outside of respondents' households. The most active age group was schoolchildren (ages 5-14), who averaged around 16-18 daily contacts, about 2-3 times as many as the least active age groups. We show how such parameters of contact patterns help modify a sophisticated national simulation system that has been used for years to model the spread of pandemic diseases in Taiwan. Based on such actual and representative data that enable researchers to infer findings to the whole population, our analyses aim to facilitate implementing more appropriate and effective strategies for controlling an emerging or pandemic disease infection. © 2012 Fu et al. Source


Hsu L.-C.,Center for Research | Hsu L.-C.,National Yang Ming University | Chen Y.-J.,Center for Research | Hsu F.-K.,Center for Research | And 6 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

Background:A mass Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccination program targeting children was launched in Taiwan in 1968, and the number of pediatric JE cases substantially decreased thereafter. The aim of this study was to elucidate the long-term trend of JE incidence, and to investigate the age-specific seroprevalence of JE-neutralizing antibodies.Methodology/Principal Findings:A total of 2,948 laboratory-confirmed JE cases that occurred between 1966 and 2012 were analyzed using a mandatory notification system managed by the Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan. A total of 6,594 randomly-sampled serum specimens obtained in a nationwide population-based survey in 2002 were analyzed to estimate the seroprevalence of JE-neutralizing antibodies in the general population. The average annual JE incidence rate of the group aged 30 years and older was 0.167 cases per 100,000 people between 2001 and 2012, which was higher than the 0.052 cases per 100,000 people among those aged under 30 years. These seroepidemiological findings indicate that the cohort born between 1963 and 1975, who generally received two or three doses of the vaccine and were administered the last booster dose more than 20 years ago, exhibited the lowest positive rate of JE-neutralizing antibodies (54%). The highest and second highest antibody rates were observed, respectively, in the oldest unvaccinated cohort (86%) and in the youngest cohort born between 1981 and 1986, who received four doses 10-15 years ago (74%).Conclusion/Significance:Over the past decade, the main age group of the confirmed JE cases in Taiwan shifted from young children to adults over 30 years of age. People who were born between 1963 and 1975 exhibited the lowest seroprevalence of JE-neutralizing antibodies. Thus, the key issue for JE control in Taiwan is to reduce adult JE cases through a cost-effective analysis of various immunization strategies. © 2014 Hsu et al. Source


Liu D.P.,Epidemic Intelligence Center | Liu D.P.,National Taiwan University | Wang E.T.,Centers for Disease Control | Pan Y.H.,Centers for Disease Control | Cheng S.H.,National Taiwan University
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2014

Immunisation registry systems have been shown to be important for finding pockets of under-immunised individuals and for increasing vaccination coverage. The National Immunisation Information System (NIIS) was established in 2003 in Taiwan. In this perspective, we present the construction of the NIIS and two innovative applications, which were implemented in 2009, which link the NIIS with other databases for better control of measles. Firstly, by linking the NIIS with hospital administrative records, we are able to follow up contacts of measles cases in a timely manner to provide the necessary prophylaxis, such as immunoglobulin or vaccines. Since 2009, there have been no measles outbreaks in hospitals in Taiwan. Secondly, by linking the NIIS with an immigration database, we are able to ensure that young citizens under the age of five years entering Taiwan from abroad become fully vaccinated. Since 2009, the measles-mumps-rubella vaccine coverage rate at two years of age has increased from 96% to 98%. We consider these applications of the NIIS to be effective mechanisms for improving the performance of infectious disease control in Taiwan. The experience gained could provide a valuable example for other countries. © 2014 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). All rights reserved. Source

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