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Le Touquet – Paris-Plage, France

Sauvageot D.,Epicentre | Schaefer M.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Olson D.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Pujades-Rodriguez M.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | O'Brien D.P.,Medecins Sans Frontieres

OBJECTIVE: We describe medium-term outcomes for young children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited countries. METHODS: Analyses were conducted on surveillance data for children <5 years of age receiving ART (initiated April 2002 to January 2008) in 48 HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Africa and Asia. Primary outcome measures were probability of remaining in care, probability of developing World Health Organization stage 4 clinical events, rate of switching to second-line ART, and drug toxicity, compared at 6, 12, 24, and 36 months of ART. RESULTS: Of 3936 children (90% in Africa) initiating ART, 9% were <12 months, 50% were 12 to 35 months, and 41% were 36 to 59 months of age. The median time of ART was 10.5 months. Probabilities of remaining in care after 12, 24, and 36 months of ART were 0.85, 0.80, and 0.75, respectively. Compared with children 36 to 59 months of age at ART initiation, probabilities of remaining in care were significantly lower for children <12 months of age. Overall, 55% and 69% of deaths and losses to follow-up occurred in the first 3 and 6 months of ART, respectively. Probabilities of developing stage 4 clinical events after 12, 24, and 36 months of ART were 0.03, 0.06, and 0.09, respectively. Only 33 subjects (0.8%) switched to second-line regimens, and 151 (3.8%) experienced severe drug toxicities. CONCLUSIONS: Large-scale ART for children <5 years of age in resource-limited settings is feasible, with encouraging clinical outcomes, but efforts should be increased to improve early HIV diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2010 by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Source

Baron E.,Epicentre | Magone C.,Medecins Sans Frontieres
International Health

The social rejection of the polio eradication campaign in endemic countries challenges an assumption underlying the goal itself: the full compliance of an entire population to a public health programme. The polio campaign, which has been an extraordinary public health enterprise, is at risk of becoming irremediably unpopular if the eradication goal is pursued at all costs. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) should not be driven by the fear of failure, because the greatest benefit of the polio campaign is that it has demonstrated how simple, community-wide actions can contribute to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of a disease. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. Source

Nicholas S.,Epicentre | Sabapathy K.,MSFAIDSWorking Group | Ferreyra C.,MSF AIDS Working Group | Varaine F.,MSF Tuberculosis Working Group | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes

SETTING:: Eight HIV programs in sub-Saharan Africa. OBJECTIVE:: To describe the incidence of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis before and after the start of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART) and investigate associated risk factors. DESIGN:: Multicohort study. Adults enrolled between January 2006 and September 2008. Results: A total of 30,134 patients contributed 25,916 person-years of follow-up. The incidence of tuberculosis was 10.5 per 100 person-years during the pre-ART and 5.4 during the ART period. For all types of tuberculosis, incidence was similar in the pre-ART period and initial 3 months of ART but declined over time receiving ART (from 13 per 100 person-years in the first 3 months to 1.5 per 100 person-years after 12 months of therapy). Throughout follow-up, rates of pulmonary tuberculosis remained 2-fold to 3-fold higher than extrapulmonary tuberculosis rates. Smear-negative pulmonary tuberculosis was higher than smear-positive incidence and varied greatly across sites during the pre-ART period. Incidence was lower in rural sites, women, patients without prior history of tuberculosis, body mass index ≥ 18.5 kg/m, and 200 nadir CD4 cells per microliter. Recurrence rate was 1.7 per 100 person-years (95% confidence interval: 1.0 to 2.8). Conclusions: Our findings show the high burden that tuberculosis represents for HIV programs and highlight the importance of earlier ART start and the need to implement intensified tuberculosis finding, isoniazide prophylaxis, and infection control. © 2011 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Langendorf C.,Epicentre | Roederer T.,Epicentre | de Pee S.,World Food Programme | Brown D.,World Food Programme | And 4 more authors.
PLoS Medicine

Finding the most appropriate strategy for the prevention of moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM) in young children is essential in countries like Niger with annual “hunger gaps.” Options for large-scale prevention include distribution of supplementary foods, such as fortified-blended foods or lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) with or without household support (cash or food transfer). To date, there has been no direct controlled comparison between these strategies leading to debate concerning their effectiveness. We compared the effectiveness of seven preventive strategies—including distribution of nutritious supplementary foods, with or without additional household support (family food ration or cash transfer), and cash transfer only—on the incidence of SAM and MAM among children aged 6–23 months over a 5-month period, partly overlapping the hunger gap, in Maradi region, Niger. We hypothesized that distributions of supplementary foods would more effectively reduce the incidence of acute malnutrition than distributions of household support by cash transfer. We conducted a prospective intervention study in 48 rural villages located within 15 km of a health center supported by Forum Santé Niger (FORSANI)/Médecins Sans Frontières in Madarounfa. Seven groups of villages (five to 11 villages) were allocated to different strategies of monthly distributions targeting households including at least one child measuring 60 cm–80 cm (at any time during the study period whatever their nutritional status): three groups received high-quantity LNS (HQ-LNS) or medium-quantity LNS (MQ-LNS) or Super Cereal Plus (SC+) with cash (€38/month [US$52/month]); one group received SC+ and family food ration; two groups received HQ-LNS or SC+ only; one group received cash only (€43/month [US$59/month]). Children 60 cm–80 cm of participating households were assessed at each monthly distribution from August to December 2011. Primary endpoints were SAM (weight-for-length Z-score [WLZ]<−3 and/or mid-upper arm circumference [MUAC]<11.5 cm and/or bipedal edema) and MAM (−3≤WLZ<−2 and/or 11.5≤MUAC<12.5 cm). A total of 5,395 children were included in the analysis (615 to 1,054 per group). Incidence of MAM was twice lower in the strategies receiving a food supplement combined with cash compared with the cash-only strategy (cash versus HQ-LNS/cash adjusted hazard ratio [HR] = 2.30, 95% CI 1.60–3.29; cash versus SC+/cash HR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.39–4.21; cash versus MQ-LNS/cash HR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.52–2.83) or with the supplementary food only groups (HQ-LNS versus HQ-LNS/cash HR = 1.84, 95% CI 1.35–2.51; SC+ versus SC+/cash HR = 2.53, 95% CI 1.47–4.35). In addition, the incidence of SAM was three times lower in the SC+/cash group compared with the SC+ only group (SC+ only versus SC+/cash HR = 3.13, 95% CI 1.65–5.94). However, non-quantified differences between groups, may limit the interpretation of the impact of the strategies. Preventive distributions combining a supplementary food and cash transfer had a better preventive effect on MAM and SAM than strategies relying on cash transfer or supplementary food alone. As a result, distribution of nutritious supplementary foods to young children in conjunction with household support should remain a pillar of emergency nutritional interventions. Additional rigorous research is vital to evaluate the effectiveness of these and other nutritional interventions in diverse settings. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01828814 Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary © 2014 Langendorf et al. Source

Luquero F.J.,Epicentre | Ciglenecki I.,Medecins Sans Frontieres | Grais R.F.,Epicentre
PLoS Medicine

In 2013, a stockpile of oral cholera vaccine (OCV) was created for use in outbreak response, but vaccine availability remains severely limited. Innovative strategies are needed to maximize the health impact and minimize the logistical barriers to using available vaccine. Here we ask under what conditions the use of one dose rather than the internationally licensed two-dose protocol may do both. Using mathematical models we determined the minimum relative single-dose efficacy (MRSE) at which single-dose reactive campaigns are expected to be as or more effective than two-dose campaigns with the same amount of vaccine. Average one- and two-dose OCV effectiveness was estimated from published literature and compared to the MRSE. Results were applied to recent outbreaks in Haiti, Zimbabwe, and Guinea using stochastic simulations to illustrate the potential impact of one- and two-dose campaigns. At the start of an epidemic, a single dose must be 35%–56% as efficacious as two doses to avert the same number of cases with a fixed amount of vaccine (i.e., MRSE between 35% and 56%). This threshold decreases as vaccination is delayed. Short-term OCV effectiveness is estimated to be 77% (95% CI 57%–88%) for two doses and 44% (95% CI −27% to 76%) for one dose. This results in a one-dose relative efficacy estimate of 57% (interquartile range 13%–88%), which is above conservative MRSE estimates. Using our best estimates of one- and two-dose efficacy, we projected that a single-dose reactive campaign could have prevented 70,584 (95% prediction interval [PI] 55,943–86,205) cases in Zimbabwe, 78,317 (95% PI 57,435–100,150) in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, and 2,826 (95% PI 2,490–3,170) cases in Conakry, Guinea: 1.1 to 1.2 times as many as a two-dose campaign. While extensive sensitivity analyses were performed, our projections of cases averted in past epidemics are based on severely limited single-dose efficacy data and may not fully capture uncertainty due to imperfect surveillance data and uncertainty about the transmission dynamics of cholera in each setting. Reactive vaccination campaigns using a single dose of OCV may avert more cases and deaths than a standard two-dose campaign when vaccine supplies are limited, while at the same time reducing logistical complexity. These findings should motivate consideration of the trade-offs between one- and two-dose campaigns in resource-constrained settings, though further field efficacy data are needed and should be a priority in any one-dose campaign. © 2015 Azman et al. Source

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