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Marino C.,ENEA | Lagroye I.,EPHE Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory | Scarfi M.R.,CNR Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment | Sienkiewicz Z.,Public Health England
Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology | Year: 2011

It has sometimes been assumed that children are more sensitive than adults to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) fields associated with cellular wireless telephones. However, relatively few in vitro or animal models have examined this possibility.In vitro studies have used several cell types, from both humans and rodents, including primary cells, embryonic cell lines, undifferentiated cancer cell lines, and stem cells. Overall, the balance of evidence does not suggest that field-related effects occur in any cell type: gene and protein expression were not significantly changed by exposure in nine out of 15 studies; genotoxicity was evaluated in 13 papers and in most, of these studies, no damage to DNA was detected; eight studies failed to demonstrate induction of apoptosis; and three studies reported lack of oxidative stress induction by RF-exposures. Five of eight studies investigating the effects of combined exposures to RF fields and chemical or physical agents reported a lack of field-related effects.In addition, few papers have been published on the effects of low level exposure of immature animals. The available results are very limited, both in terms of signals used and biological endpoints investigated, but the evidence does not indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposures are associated with acute adverse responses or the development of detrimental changes in the long-term. Overall, this suggests that young animals may not be significantly more sensitive than adults, but there is clearly a need for further studies to be carried out. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Poulletier de Gannes F.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Poulletier de Gannes F.,EPHE Bioelectromagnetics Laboratory | Haro E.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Hurtier A.,University of Bordeaux 1 | And 12 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part B - Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2012

Background: The increase in exposure to the Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) wireless communication signal has raised public health concerns especially for young people. Animal studies looking at the effects of early life and prenatal exposure to this source of electromagnetic fields, in the radiofrequency (RF) range, on development and behavior have been considered as high priority research needs by the World Health Organization. Methods: For the first time, our study assessed the effects of in utero exposure to a 2450 MHz Wi-Fi signal (2 hr/day, 6 days/week for 18 days) on pregnant rats and their pups. Three levels in terms of whole-body specific absorption rate were used: 0.08, 0.4, and 4 W/kg. The prenatal study on fetuses delivered by caesarean (P20) concerned five females/group. The dams and their offspring were observed for 28 days after delivery (15 females/group). Results: For all test conditions, no abnormalities were noted in the pregnant rats and no significant signs of toxicity were observed in the pre- and postnatal development of the pups, even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. Conclusions: In the present study, no teratogenic effect of repeated exposures to the Wi-Fi wireless communication signal was demonstrated even at the highest level of 4 W/kg. The results from this screening study aimed at investigating Wi-Fi effects, strengthen the previous conclusions that teratology and development studies have not detected any noxious effects of exposures to mobile telephony-related RF fields at exposure levels below standard limits. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Poulletier de Gannes F.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Billaudel B.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Haro E.,University of Bordeaux 1 | Taxile M.,University of Bordeaux 1 | And 11 more authors.
Reproductive Toxicology | Year: 2013

In recent decades, concern has been growing about decreasing fecundity and fertility in the human population. Exposure to non-ionizing electromagnetic fields (EMF), especially radiofrequency (RF) fields used in wireless communications has been suggested as a potential risk factor.For the first time, we evaluated the effects of exposure to the 2450. MHz Wi-Fi signal (1. h/day, 6. days/week) on the reproductive system of male and female Wistar rats, pre-exposed to Wi-Fi during sexual maturation. Exposure lasted 3 weeks (males) or 2 weeks (females), then animals were mated and couples exposed for 3 more weeks. On the day before delivery, the fetuses were observed for lethality, abnormalities, and clinical signs. In our experiment, no deleterious effects of Wi-Fi exposure on rat male and female reproductive organs and fertility were observed for 1. h per days. No macroscopic abnormalities in fetuses were noted, even at the critical level of 4. W/kg. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

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