Presidente Prudente, Brazil
Presidente Prudente, Brazil

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Viana M.C.M.,EPAMIG Centro Oeste | Freire F.M.,EPAMIG Centro Oeste | Ferreira J.J.,EPAMIG Centro Oeste | Macedo G.A.R.,EPAMIG Centro Oeste | Mascarenhas M.H.T.,EPAMIG Centro Oeste
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2011

Production of better quality forage can be achieved by changing grazing method, from continuous grazing by rotational grazing, associated with fertilization practices, especially nitrogen fertilization. It was evaluated during the rainy seasons of 2002/03 and 2003/04 the effect of nitrogen doses (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1) on dry matter yield and on chemical composition (crude protein, ADF, NDF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin) of a Urochroa decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture, managed under rotational grazing. In addition, it was evaluated the efficiencies of two nitrogen sources (ammonium sulfate and urea) and recovery of nitrogen by the pastures. The nitrogen doses, as urea in the first year and ammonium sulfate and urea in the second year, were split in equal applications during the rainy season. Linear effects were found to dry matter (DM) yield and crude protein content in response to the nitrogen applied. Values of 18 and 14 kg DM/kg N applied were obtained in the first and second year, respectively. For crude protein, contents of 9.1 and 11.7% were noted with the application of 300 kg ha-1 N, in the first and second year respectively, whereas in the control treatment (0 kg ha-1 N), the contents found were 6.6% for the first year and 7.1% for the second year. In turn, contents of NDF, ADF, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin were not affected by nitrogen doses. Sources of urea and ammonium sulfate did not differ from each other. Efficiencies of nitrogen recovery in available dry matter were 33.1, 41.7 and 42.2% in response to 100, 200 and 300 kg ha-1 N, respectively, which can be considered relatively low. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Viana M.C.M.,EPAMIG Centro Oeste | da Silva I.P.,Federal University of Lavras | Freire F.M.,EPAMIG Centro Oeste | Ferreira M.M.,Federal University of Lavras | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2014

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization in the four seasons of the year on forage production, nitrate (NO3) in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index (SPAD reading) in the leaves of irrigated Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania grass, establishing their critical ranges. In addition, we evaluated the ability to predict forage production based on NO3 in the sap, total N in the forage and relative chlorophyll index. The soil in the experimental area was classified as an Oxisol (Red-Yellow Latosol) with a clayey texture. Annual rates of N (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1) in the form of urea were the treatments tested. Irrigation was performed through a conventional spray system. The NO3 content in the sap and the relative chlorophyll index were measured in leaves using a portable meter with NO3 selective electrode and the SPAD-502 portable chlorophyll meter device, respectively. Tanzania guinea grass was very responsive to N fertilization, except in the winter. The critical ranges of the SPAD reading proved to be more adequate for monitoring the nutritional state of N of Tanzania guinea grass in the different seasons of the year than the NO3 content in the sap and the total N content in the dry matter. Use of the chlorophyll meter is more advantageous than the use of the portable meter with an nitrate selective electrode for predicting the nutritional status of Tanzania guinea grass. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.

Coelho J.S.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | Do Carmo Araujo S.A.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | Viana M.C.M.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | Villela S.D.J.,Federal University of Vales do Jequitinhonha and Mucuri | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2014

The study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the effect of different tree arrangements in forage yield, nutritive value and structure of the understory of signalgrass (Brachiaria decumbens) in silvipastoral system with different regrowth times. The design was in complete randomized block with tree replicates in a factorial scheme with split-plots 2 × 2 × 5 consisting two spatial arrangements [Double lines 9 × (2 × 2m) and simple lines (9 × 2m)] in two sampling places (in the middle of the intercropping and under the three canopy) in the plot and five regrowth times (35, 42, 49, 56 e 63 days) in the split-plot. It was used a silvipastoral system established since June, 2008 in degraded pasture with signalgrass predominance. The pasture was homogenized by grazing at 15 cm from the soil level. Were evaluated the dry matter yield leaf:stem ratio, light interception and leaf area index. In addition were evaluated the nutritive value characteristics dry matter content, neutral and acid detergent fiber, crude protein and lignin. The photosynthetic active radiation was monitored. The use of simple or double lines did not influence the leaf area index, light interception and dry mass yield. The leaf:stem ratio was influenced by the sampling place only in the double line arrangement. The neutral detergent fiber was substantially high in the double line arrangement. Therefore, the use of double lines reduces the photosynthetic active radiation amount incident in the understory, but does not reduce the forage yield in relation to simple line arrangements. These results indicate the use of double lines arrangement may allow the harvest of more threes without reduce the pasture production.

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