Viçosa, Brazil
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Jesus Junior W.C.,Federal University of Espirito Santo | Paula Junior T.J.,EPAMIG | Lehner M.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | Hau B.,Leibniz University of Hanover
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2014

This review deals with the phenomenon of plant disease interactions. The epidemiological implications of foliar diseases occurring simultaneously on the same crop are important because the establishment of disease management strategies depends on the knowledge of disease interactions. We discuss some concepts and the terminology related to the interaction studies and present related examples with special emphasis on interacting wheat diseases. © by the Brazilian Phytopathological Society.

Lopes J.R.S.,University of Sao Paulo | Da Silva L.F.D.O.,EPAMIG
Phytopathologia Mediterranea | Year: 2016

Olea europaea (L.) trees displaying leaf scorching symptoms, identical to those recently reported for olive trees colonized by Xylella fastidiosa in Southern Italy and also in Argentina, were observed in commercial orchards of two counties in Southeastern Brazil. PCR-based diagnosis using conserved primers for X. fastidiosa strains (RST31/33) and also specific to X. fastidiaosa subsp. pauca (CVC1/272-2 int) were positive for all symptomatic tested samples (n = 8 of 9), but no template was obtained using twigs from asymptomatic trees (n = 20). Bacterial colonies were isolated from symptomatic tissues on culture medium and confirmed by PCR using the set of primers specific to X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca. Comparative sequence analyses of seven MLST loci amplified from one tripled passaged colony (MFG01) perfectly matched with sequences of alleles leuA #7, petC #6, malF#8, cysG#10, holC#11, nuoL#8, and gltT#8, the allelic profile of Sequence Type-ST16, which is represented by the strain COF0238 isolated from Coffea arabica (L.) in Brazil (http://pubmlst.org/xfastidiosa/). Phylogenetic analysis placed the ST16 into subspecies pauca, but genetically closer to ST11 and ST13, both obtained from Citrus sinensis (L.) trees with citrus variegated chlorosis. The results confirm the association of olive plants showing leaf scorching with the presence of X. fastidiosa subsp. pauca, and represent the first report of this bacterium in Brazilian olive orchards. © 2016 Author(s).

da Rocha R.P.,Federal University of Viçosa | de Melo E.C.,Federal University of Viçosa | Corbin J.B.,University of Valencia | Berbert P.A.,State University of Norte Fluminense | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2012

This work aimed to study the drying kinetics of thyme and subsequent adjustment of different mathematical models to the experimental data and to determine the effective diffusivity and the activation energy. In order to conduct the experiment the temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 oC were used. The experimental design employed was in randomized blocks with three repetitions. For the adjustment of the mathematical models to the experimental data non-linear regression was performed using Simplex-Quasi-Newton method. The results showed that the Page model was the one that promoted the best fit of the experimental data to describe the drying kinetics of the thyme leaves. The values of effective diffusivity coefficients ranged between 3.69 × 10-12 and 1.19 × 10-10 m2 s-1 and the value of activation was 77.16 kJ mol-1.

Vieira R.F.,Epamig | Paula Junior T.J.,Epamig | Carneiro J.E.S.,Federal University of Viçosa | Teixeira H.,Epamig | Queiroz T.F.N.,Epamig
Tropical Plant Pathology | Year: 2012

White mold is a yield-limiting disease during the fall-winter season in southeastern Brazil when irrigated type III common beans are generally sown 0.5 m apart with 10 to 12 plants per meter. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effcacy of combining increased row width (RW) and reduced planting density (PD), with or without fungicide, for white mold management. Treatments were arranged as a 23 factorial: RW (0.50 or 0.75 m), PD (6 or 12 plants per meter), and fungicide (sprayed or unsprayed). Two trials were conducted in Viçosa, State of Minas Gerais. In 2002, the average incidence of white mold was 43.2%, the severity index, 31.1%, and the yield, 2513 kg ha-1. In 2003, the values of these variables were 48.0%, 22.6%, and 2159 kg ha-1, respectively. Interactions involving both RW and PD were not signifcant for either disease intensity or yield in the combined analysis across years. Increasing RW led to reduction in white mold intensity in 2002. The lower PD reduced disease incidence in 2002 and did not affect yield in the combined analysis. In fungicide sprayed plots, wide RW decreased yield in 2002, but RW did not affect yield in 2003. In unsprayed plots, RW did not affect yield in both years. We conclude that increasing RW to 0.75 m combined with low PD is a promising strategy for white mold management when fungicide is not applied. When fungicide is applied, the current row width (0.50 m) combined with low PD maximize the yield.

PubMed | Embrapa Gado de Leite, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria and EPAMIG
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society | Year: 2016

In bovines, artificial selection has produced a large number of breeds which differ in production, environmental adaptation, and health characteristics. To investigate the genetic basis of these phenotypical differences, several bovine breeds have been sequenced. Millions of new SNVs were described at every new breed sequenced, suggesting that every breed should be sequenced. Guzerat or Guzer is an indicine breed resistant to drought and parasites that has been the base for some important breeds such as Brahman. Here, we describe the sequence of the Guzer genome and the in silico functional analyses of intragenic breed-specific variations. Mate-paired libraries were generated using the ABI SOLiD system. Sequences were mapped to the Bos taurus reference genome (UMD 3.1) and 87% of the reference genome was covered at a 26X. Among the variants identified, 2,676,067 SNVs and 463,158 INDELs were homozygous, not found in any database searched, and may represent true differences between Guzer and B. taurus. Functional analyses investigated with the NGS-SNP package focused on 1069 new, non-synonymous SNVs, splice-site variants (including acceptor and donor sites, and the conserved regions at both intron borders, referred to here as splice regions) and coding INDELs (NS/SS/I). These NS/SS/I map to 935 genes belonging to cell communication, environmental adaptation, signal transduction, sensory, and immune systems pathways. These pathways have been involved in phenotypes related to health, adaptation to the environment and behavior, and particularly, disease resistance and heat tolerance. Indeed, 105 of these genes are known QTLs for milk, meat and carcass, production, reproduction, and health traits. Therefore, in addition to describing new genetic variants, our approach provided groundwork for unraveling key candidate genes and mutations.

Moreira M.A.,EPAMIG | Vidigal S.M.,EPAMIG | Sediyama M.A.N.,EPAMIG | dos Santos M.R.,EPAMIG
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2011

The appropriate program of fertilization for the cabbage crop can be obtained through the synchronization of the plant demand of the plant with the supply of N during the cycle. We determined the influence of rates of nitrogen in the accumulation of dry weight and in the yield, in different phases of the development of cabbage hybrid Shutoku. The experiment was carried out in EPAMIG, Oratorios, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, from July 2th to October 10th, 2008. Five rates of N were evaluated (0, 75, 150, 300 and 450 kg ha-1). Each treatment was set in randomized block design with four replications. At 50, 64 and 78 days after seeding, the characteristics of growth of the plants, length of the stem, number of leaves, fresh and dry weight of leaves, stems and roots and N content in the dry weight were measured. The harvest occurred at 103 days after seeding. The highest production of cabbage head fresh weight was of 1.13 kg obtained with the rate of 277.8 kg N ha-1. With the optimal rate of N for the yield, the optimal estimated values for the content of N-NO3 in leaves and of total nitrogen varied with the sampling time. The initial period of the highest accumulation of dry weight varied with the rates of nitrogen.

Antunes L.E.C.,Embrapa Clima Temperado | Goncalves E.D.,Epamig | Trevisan R.,Colegio Agricola de Frederico Westphalen
Ciencia Rural | Year: 2010

The aim of this research was to evaluate yield and quality of blackberry cultivars Tupy, Guarani, Caingangue, Cherokee and Brazos, and the 'selection 97' and 'selection 787' at Pelotas, in the Southern of Rio Grande do Sul State, under agroecological system. The plants were available in blocks varietal randomized in the orchard, with 10 plants per row, four lines with two cultivars per line. For statistic analysis of the fruit characteristics each year of evaluation (three) was considered as one repetition. The characteristics evaluate were the beginning and end of flowering and harvest, mass (g), number of fruit per plant, content of total soluble solids (°Brix), average production by plant (pl g-1) and estimated productivity per hectare (ha pl-1). In the Pelotas-RS region there is technical viability for blackberry growing at agroecological system. There was no difference between cultivars evaluated for yield, fruit number and total soluble solids content.

da Silva J.T.A.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais Epamig | Rodrigues M.G.V.,Epamig
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2013

The objective of this work was to evaluate the response of irrigated 'Prata Anã' banana (AAB) to soil application of phosphorus, in four production cycles. The experiment was carried out in the semiarid region of the north of the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in a clayey Oxisol, with very low available P (4.6 mg dm-3, Mehlich). A randomized complete block design was used, in a 5x4 factorial arrangement, with five doses of triple superphosphate (0, 50, 100, 200, and 300 g P2O5 per plant per year), four production cycles, and four replicates. In the first cycle, the soil application of P increased plant height, pseudostem diameter, weight and number of fruits per bunch of banana; however, banana plants did not respond to P application in the second, third, and fourth cycles. 'Prata Anã' banana, even when grown in soil with low P content, responds to the application of this nutrient only in the first production cycle.

Ramos B.Z.,Federal University of Lavras | Toledo J.P.V.F.,Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development | de Lima J.M.,Federal University of Lavras | Serafim M.E.,Federal University of Mato Grosso | And 3 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2013

Unbalanced amounts of Ca2++, Mg2+ and K+ in soils as a consequence of high gypsum applications can be due to the relationship in size (ionic radius) and charge density (charge/ ionic radius) of each ionic species. The higher the ionic strength, the stronger is the bonding of these cations with the opposite charge ions such as OH-, SO4 -2. Thus, excessive gypsum applications, disregarding the charge balance of the soil colloidal system, the ionic balance of the solution, and the CEC, can result in significant leaching of these nutrients throughout the soil profile. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of high gypsum rates (0, 7, and 56 t ha-1) on the pH and Ca2++, Mg2+, and K+ contents in aqueous soil extracts of a dystrophic Red Latosol with coffee. The soil was sampled in the coffee rows in the following depths: 0.15- 0.25; 0.35-0.45; 0.75-0.85; 1.15-1.25, and 2.35-2.45 m, 16 months after gypsum application. The experiment consisted of four treatments: G-0 - 2 t ha-1 of gypsum was applied in total area during soil preparation, with brachiaria between coffee rows; G-7 - same as in G-0 plus 7.0 t ha-1 of gypsum applied to the coffee rows; G-56 - same as in G-0 plus 56 t ha-1 of gypsum applied to the coffee rows; and CV-7 - same as in G-7 but without brachiaria between the coffee rows. The experiments were conducted in triplicate, in a randomized block design. After 16 months, there was a reduction of the pH of the soil solution in the layers 0.15-0.25, 0.35-0.45, and 0.75-0.85 m. Gypsum improved the root environment in deeper layers, increasing Mg2+ and Ca2++ concentrations in the soil solution, but reduced K+ below 0.85 m. The amounts of exchangeable Ca2+ and Mg2+ found in the soil solution were above the critical level while exchangeable K+ was within the range indicated for the crop.

Sediyama M.A.N.,EPAMIG | Santos M.R.,EPAMIG | Vidigal S.M.,EPAMIG | Salgado L.T.,EPAMIG
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011

This work aimed to evaluate the effect of soil cover and doses of sludge from sedimentation pond of swine wastewater on yield and nutrient export in sugar beet cultivar Early Wonder. The experiment was conducted at the Vale do Piranga Experimental Farm belonging to EPAMIG Zona da Mata in Oratórios (MG), from 07/08/08 to 09/11/08. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot in randomized block design with four replications. The main plots consisted of three types of mulching: sugarcane bagasse, coffee husk and without any cover, and the subplots of five doses of sludge: 0, 10, 20, 40 and 60 t ha -1. At 70 days after transplanting, harvest was carried out. Mulching with coffee husk provided the highest root unit weight and increased yield of commercial roots, independent of the sludge dose. The most exported nutrients by the shoots were Ca, Mg and S, while N, P and K were the most exported by the roots. With a population of 400,000 plants ha -1 and yield of 34.22 t ha -1, the mean quantities of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S exported by the roots were 140, 24, 180, 8, 17 and 5 kg ha -1 and 371, 435, 320, 74 and 250 g ha -1 of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and B respectively.

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