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Vieira M.J.,Santa Catarina State University | Argenta L.C.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador EPAGRI | do Amarante C.V.T.,Santa Catarina State University | Steffens C.A.,Santa Catarina State University | Vieira A.M.F.D.,Santa Catarina State University
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2010

This research was carried out to study the effects of 1-MCP on postharvest quality preservation of kiwi 'Bruno' storage under controlled atmosphere and air. Fruits were harvested in April 2003 and 2004. Three days after harvesting, part of the fruits was treated with 1.0 μL.L-1 of 1-MCP, while the other part remained untreated (control), and then both lots were stored under air (AA) and controlled atmosphere (CA) with low ethylene. The treatment with 1-MCP delayed the increase in ethylene production rate and reduced respiration of the fruit after removal from cold storage. This was associated with a delay of loss in flesh firmness and a reduction of pericarp translucent and senescent. Treatment with 1-MCP showed no significant effect on SS content. Fruit stored under AA showed high metabolism, resulting in a low storage potential, even when treated with 1-MCP. The greatest benefits on postharvest quality preservation of kiwifruit 'Bruno' was achieved in fruit treated with 1-MCP and stored in CA with low ethylene.

Francescatto P.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Petri J.L.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador EPAGRI | Racsko J.,Valent BioSciences Corporation | Couto M.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador EPAGRI | Silva A.L.D.,Federal University of Santa Catarina
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2015

Apple shows two distinct phases that characterizes its annual cycle: dormancy and vegetative/ reproductive growth. The importance of knowing the influence of climate conditions on tree reproductive processes and furthermore, developing technologies that minimize the future effects increases upon the global warming predictions becomes concerning. The goal of this study was to characterize the behavior of the main phenological events of apple, from bud break to harvest, on different fruiting habits under the subtropical climatic conditions of the South of Brazil. The experiments were carried out on nine year old ‘Gala’ and ‘Fuji’ apples in the Experimental Station of EPAGRI (Brazil - 26°50’S, 50°58’W, altitude 950m) during two different growing seasons, 2011/12 and 2013/14. Date and days after dormancy breaking treatment and heat requirements of the main phenological stages from bud break to harvest were evaluated. Evaluations were performed on each fruiting habit: spur buds, terminal and axillary buds on long shoots. Differences found on the onset of bud break and flowering among fruiting habits greatly depended on climate conditions of the particular year. High temperatures conditions after the dormancy breaking treatment induced to a phenological synchrony among fruiting habits, and vice versa. From dormancy breaking treatment, spur buds, especially ‘Gala’ buds, required less heat accumulation to bud break. Terminal buds of long shoots required higher amount of heat than spur buds to start flowering. © 2015, Sociedade Brasileira de Fruticultura. All rights reserved.

Petri J.L.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador EPAGRI | Leite G.B.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador EPAGRI | Couto M.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador EPAGRI | Poliana Francescatto E.,Estacao Experimental de Cacador EPAGRI
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2011

The boom of the commercial apple production in Brazil was set by the '70s, since up to this date there were few commercial orchards, representing less than 100ha. By the initiative of some pioneer growers, and the fiscal incentive that allowed investing part of the income tax on orchard implantation and the support of state governments to developing projects, the apple culture had and expressive boost from the '80s. In the '70s, Brazil depended on importations, what represented at that time more than 100million dollars. The production was approximately 13,263ton and reached 183,299ton and 857,615ton in the '80s and '90s, respectively. Recently, Brazil has reached an producing area of around 37,000ha with 3450 growers, and in 2009/2010 it was harvested 1,253 thousand tons of apples. Since 1994, Brazil became an apple exporter, and after 2000 exportations have beaten importations. The apple sector is an important source of employment generation with three direct and indirect jobs per hectare, representing more than 100 thousand employment in the apple productive chain. These advances are due to important technologies that were introduced throughout the years, which also let an increase of quality and yield per unit of area; in the '70s and '80s yield was inferior to 15ton/ha and nowadays is near to 40ton/ha, although some areas produce above 50ton/ha. Evolution also occurred with the cultivars. The first plantings were based on the cultivars Golden Delicious, Starkrimson, Blackjon, etc. These cultivars were progressively being substitute by 'Gala' and 'Fuji', and from the '90s clones that produce redder fruits of both cultivars were planted. Greater progress occurred to the quality of the vegetative material, since rootstocks and scions were virus-contaminated. The introduction of free-virus material led to an increase in yield and to the use of dwarfing rootstocks in high density orchards. The first apple orchards were performed with 500 to 800 trees per hectare; currently, orchard density consists of 2500 to 3000 trees per hectare. As the apple producing region in the South of Brazil has no adequate chilling to attempt the requirements to release dormancy, technologies were developed to induce bud burst and blooming, and consequently no alternate bearing. Besides these technologies, it must be highlighted the advances in the training systems and pruning, harvest management, chemical thinning, pollination, phytosanitary control and fruit conservation and storage. Moreover, the latter permitted the market supplying for twelve months of the year with high quality fruits. Apple was the pioneer fruit in the implantation of the integrated production system and the first Brazilian fruit to be certified in this system.

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