Florianópolis, Brazil
Florianópolis, Brazil

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Argenta L.C.,EPAGRI | Mattheis J.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Fan X.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Postharvest Biology and Technology | Year: 2016

Repeated low-dose 1-MCP-applications were evaluated during cold storage of 'Bartlett' pear fruit to overcome long-term ripening inhibition of a high dose 1-MCP treatment at harvest. Fruit were exposed to 1-MCP at 0, 0.42, 4.2 or 42μmolm-3 at harvest in year one, and to 0, 0.42 or 42μmolm-3 in year two, and then stored in air at 0.5°C. In year two, fruit exposed to 1-MCP at 0.42μmolm-3 at harvest were retreated during cold storage once (after 38 days) or twice (after 38 and 68 days), when ethylene production in samples removed from cold storage exceeded 0.014ηmolkg-1s-1 within 7 days at 20°C. 1-MCP was re-applied once at 0.42 or 4.2μmolm-3 or twice at 0.42 or 4.2 then 42μmolm-3. In year one, fruit treatment at harvest with 4.2 or 42μmolm-3 1-MCP provided similar ripening delay during 120 days in storage followed by 7 days at 20°C, while fruit treated with 0.42μmolm-3 1-MCP was not different from the control. In year two, fruit treated at harvest with 0.42μmolm-3 1-MCP and retreated with 0.42μmolm-3 (when ethylene production was already high) did not delay subsequent fruit ripening. Fruit treated at harvest with 42μmolm-3 1-MCP or with 0.42μmolm-3 at harvest and then +4.2+42, had similar peel yellow color, TA and SSC, but higher firmness after 180 days storage, compared to control fruit after 60 days storage. After 180 days storage, the severity of superficial scald, senescent scald and core browning on fruit treated only at harvest with 42μmolm-3 were lower than on control fruit and similar to on fruit treated with 0.42μmolm-3 at harvest and then retreated with +4.2+42. Therefore, a low dose application of 1-MCP at harvest followed by reapplication with higher doses based on fruit ethylene production capacity after removal from cold storage can extend 'Bartlett' pear storage life while allowing ripening to occur after mid-term storage. The efficiency of this procedure will depend on timing and 1-MCP reapplication concentration. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Braida J.A.,Federal Technological University of Paraná | Reichert J.M.,Federal University of Santa Maria | Reinert D.J.,Federal University of Santa Maria | da Veiga M.,EPAGRI
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2010

Organic matter accumulation can increase soil resistance to compaction, decreasing the compaction magnitude or its effects. The objective of this study was to establish the effect of soil organic matter accumulation on the compressibility index, which corresponds to soil susceptibility to compaction. The study was performed using samples collected from a Hapludalf and a Hapludox soils in southern Brazil, both having a significant variation in soil organic carbon (SOC) content. Soil compressibility tests were performed under confined conditions, in a uniaxial apparatus by using normal loads of 12.5, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1600 kPa, and the compressibility index (Cc) was calculated. Soil organic carbon content, bulk density, porosity and water saturation degree were determined too. Results show that soil organic matter content affects the soil compressibility index, however the magnitude and type of effect are dependent upon soil texture and effects associated to soil water retention, cohesion, and bulk density.

Lichtemberg L.A.,Epagri | Lichtemberg P.S.F.,University of California at Davis
Revista Brasileira de Fruticultura | Year: 2011

Since the beginning of the last century the Brazilian banana crop pass by a transformation generated by the export trade from the coast of Sao Paulo State to the Latin and European market. Achievements from the Agriculture Department of Sao Paulo State allowed changes from the semi-extraction system for a modern banana production, involving practices such as: crop and fertilization management and also disease and plagues control. In the 1950's the Agronomic Institute (Instituto Agronômico) and the Biological Institute (Instituto Biológico), both from Sao Paulo State increased the banana crop research. On the 1970's with the establishment of the Fruit-Crops Brazilian Society (Sociedade rasileira e Fruticultura), Embrapa Research, and the progress attained by the National Research Center of Cassava and Fruit-crops (Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura), the several State Research Centers and the universities permit important improvements for the national banana production. Moreover, the official and private extension services, the private corporations and the irrigation projects at the Brazilian semi-arid, increased significantly the banana cultivation areas using most technological methodologies. The two last decades the number of grower associations raised, and with better organization they implemented and improved the available technologies with technician support. On this paper statistical data and crop techniques available for the Brazilian banana crop are described with emphasis on the selection of new genotypes. Good agricultural practices such as seedling, pre- and pos-harvesting management, plant protection strategies and alternative cultivation systems are also demonstrated.

Argenta L.C.,EPAGRI | Fan X.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Mattheis J.P.,U.S. Department of Agriculture
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2010

The present study evaluated how post-harvest treatments with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) or methyl jasmonate (MJ) impact 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn' apple fruit tolerance to controlled atmosphere (CA) storage conditions. Fruit harvested from a commercial orchard in north central Washington were cooled to 0.5°C within 36 h of harvest and then stored in air or CA with 2 kPa O2 + 0.05 kPa CO2; 0.25 kPa O 2 + 0.05 kPa CO2 or 2 kPa O2 + 3 kPa CO 2 for up to 6 months. Fruit were treated with 2 mM MJ or 1 μl-L-1 1-MCP at harvest. Both CA conditions and 1-MCP treatment reduced ethylene production, improved maintenance of firmness and titratable acidity and reduced incidence of core flush during long-term storage compared with untreated fruit stored in air. Treatment with 1-MCP was as or more effective than low CO2-CA storage for reducing ethylene production and preservation of firmness and acidity for both cultivars. 'Fuji' apples stored in 3 kPa CO2 developed internal browning (CO 2-injury) while fruit stored in 0.25 kPa O2 with 0.05 kPa CO2 or air did not, regardless of 1-MCP treatment. 'Braeburn' apples also developed internal browning during air- or CA-storage, regardless of CO2 concentration. Severity of browning in 'Fuji' and 'Braeburn' apples stored in 3 kPa CO2 was not altered by previous 1-MCP treatment. However, browning severity increased by the 1-MCP treatment when 'Braeburn' fruit were stored in air or low CO2 CA. Treatment with MJ reduced severity of CO2-injury in fruit of both cultivars stored in high CO2 CA. The treatment with 1-MCP and storage in air or CA with 2 kPa O2 and low (≤0.05 kPa) CO2 may be a practical strategy for maximum retention of firmness and acidity with minimum development of CO2-injury in susceptible cultivars.

Duarte T.S.,EPAGRI | Peil R.M.N.,UFPel FAEM
Horticultura Brasileira | Year: 2010

We evaluated the effect of different source:sink ratios determined through variations of planting density and number of fruits per plant during the vegetative growth of melon plants. Two experiments were carried out in a plastic greenhouse in the 2004/2005 spring-summer season. In one experiment, three planting densities (1.7; 2.4 and 3.0 plants m-2) and two different quantities of fruits per plant (3 and 4) were studied. In the other experiment, two treatments were set: pruning all fruits and keeping 3 fruits plant-1, in order to evaluate the effect of the absence of fruits. From the data of dry and fresh matter and leaf area (LA) 68 days after setting, it was determined dry matter production, distribution to the vegetative parts, leaf area index (LAI), specific leaf area (SLA) and dry-matter content of the stems and leaves. The increase of the planting density did not improve the source strength and had no effect on vegetative growth during periods of the year with high solar radiation. At the end of the cropping period, the relatively low melon planting density LA, in association to a high available solar radiation, avoided an excess of mutual shading among plants; this allowed the penetration of solar radiation inside the vegetative canopy, even at higher planting densities. A new fruit competes more with the remaining fruits than with the vegetative organs. The fruits compete indistinctly with the vegetative aboveground parts. In other words, stem and leaf act as an entity. The melon plant adapts to a low demand of sinks accumulating fotoassimilates in vegetative organs.

Back A.J.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina Epagri | Bruna E.D.,Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria e Extensao Rural de Santa Catarina Epagri | Vieira H.J.,Epagri
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2012

The objective of this work was to evaluate the trends in climate series and in agroclimatic indices for growing vines in the Region of Goethe Grape Valleys, in the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The Region has a mesothermal humid climate. Maximum and minimum air temperatures, from the years 1924 to 2010, and rainfall data from 1955 to 2010 were used. The Mann-Kendall's test was used to evaluate the series trend, whose magnitude was estimated by the median slope determined by the Theil-Sen test. An increase trend was observed in the series of minimum air temperature, at the annual scale, as well as in the seasons of the year. For the maximum air temperature, there was a significant increase trend only in in the summer series. For the agrometeorological indices, a significant trend of decrease in the number of frost events was observed, reduction of the time between sprouting and harvesting, and increase trends in thermal summation and on the Huglińs and cold indexes. Increase trends were evidenced for the annual total rainfall and for rainfall during the vine growth period, as well as for the number of days with rain equal to or higher than 20 mm, and for the minimum and night temperatures.

Pascual C.S.C.I.,University of Sao Paulo | Massaretto I.L.,University of Sao Paulo | Kawassaki F.,University of Sao Paulo | Barros R.M.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 2 more authors.
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Vitamin E and γ-oryzanol display a wide range of biological activities including hypocholesterolemic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. Although white rice is far more popular worldwide, consumption of brown rice is increasing, partially on account of the presence of bioactive compounds; however, the effects of parboiling, storage and cooking on them are not well-characterized. The effects of parboiling and a 6-month storage period on the contents of vitamin E and γ-oryzanol in three brown rice cultivars grown in three different locations in Brazil were investigated. Also, their levels in branded non-parboiled and parboiled brown rice were monitored before and after cooking. Vitamin E homologues and γ-oryzanol were separated by RP-HPLC equipped with PDA and fluorescence detectors. The average levels of total tocols and γ-oryzanol in the raw brown rice cultivars studied were 25 and 188. mg/kg, respectively. Of the vitamin E homologues, γ-tocotrienol contributed with 74% of total tocols, followed by α-tocopherol, α-tocotrienol and γ-tocopherol in minor quantities. The combined processes, parboiling, storage and cooking, led to an approximate 90% reduction in tocols and only γ-tocotrienol was detectable after any of the processes. Parboiling followed by storage resulted in an approximate 40% loss of γ-oryzanol. Cooking had almost no further effect over γ-oryzanol levels in parboiled rice previously stored for 6 months. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

The study was conducted in Caçador (1067 units of cold-UF during vernalization) and São Joaquim (1999 UF) in 2006/07 and 2007/08 seasons, in order to compare the quality of fruits produced by different cultivars of Japanese pear, in two locations and harvested at different stages of maturation. The deficiency in the quantity and quality of the cold during vernalization trigged the flowering without the presence of leaves up to "J" stage in the cv. Kousui, affecting the initial development of the fruits. It also was responsible for a small number of flower buds per plant and a low quantity of flowers per bud. Regions with appropriate amount of cold during the vernalization require more intense thinning due to the greater fruit set per plant. The harvest of fruits before they reach the ideal point of physiological maturity involves the production of fruits with lower weight, lower total soluble solids, hardiness and less palatable fruits. Harvesting the fruits after the point of optimum harvest may present physiological disorders such as the honey drop and the internal degeneration caused by pulp senescence. The content of TSS was defined more by the genotype of the cultivar, but for some cultivars it varied between years. The cvs. Housui and Kousui tend to contain higher °Brix than cv. Nijisseiki. Best commercial quality of fruits was observed in cv. Housui. The number of seeds per fruit varied between cultivars and years. The cv. Housui showed low fecundity when analyzed by the average number of seeds produced per fruit (<3.0); the cv. Kousui showed low fecundity in São Joaquim, but intermediate fecundity (3.1 to 5.0 seeds per fruit) in Caçador, the cv. Suisei showed intermediate fecundity, and cv. Nijisseiki showed high fecundity (> 5.1 seeds per fruit).

Kurtz C.,EPAGRI | Ernani P.R.,Santa Catarina State University
Revista Brasileira de Ciencia do Solo | Year: 2010

The excessive use of fertilizers and liming as well as monoculture is rather common in the onion-producing region of Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Such practices have resulted in visual symptoms of micronutrient deficiency, mainly of micronutrients. This study aimed to measure the effect of B, Zn and Mn fertilizers on yield and quality of onion bulbs. Three individual trials, one for each nutrient, were carried out in the field, in Ituporanga, southern Brazil, from 2006 until 2009. In each experiment, treatments consisted of increasing rates of each micronutrient applied to the soil before planting and also of a single rate sprayed onto the leaves six times per season. Rates applied to the soil varied from 0 to 4 kg ha-1 for Zn, from 0 to 4.4 kg ha-1 for B, and from 0 to 15.6 kg ha-1 for Mn. The spray solutions contained zinc sulfate, boric acid and manganese sulfate, at concentrations of 0.5, 0.25 and 1.0%, respectively. The application of Mn or B, regardless of the form, and Zn sprays, had no effect on onion yield in any growing season. The application of Zn to the soil increased onion yield in all three years, by 10-14.5%. Maximum yield was obtained with Zn rates of 2.7 kg ha-1 in 2006/2007 (22.3 t ha-1), up to an estimated quantity of 4.5 kg ha-1 in 2008/2009 (35.6 t ha-1). The bulb quality was not affected by micronutrient application (Mn, B, or Zn), regardless of the form. It is therefore important to apply Zn to the soil for onion production in the State of Santa Catarina, even where Zn concentration exceeds the critical level established for the region, which is probably due to the requirement of this crop.

Harding K.,Damar Research Scientists | Benson E.E.,Damar Research Scientists | Nunes E.D.C.,EPAGRI | Pilatti F.K.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | And 2 more authors.
Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences | Year: 2013

Increasing the number of species conserved ex situ in Megadiverse countries is a major task exacerbated by many intricate factors including: biome complexity, wide range of biodiversity and an incomplete knowledge of life cycles, reproductive strategies, adaptations and species interactions. Although, establishing safe reserves is a crucial conservation measure their security and effective maintenance can be unfavourably compromised by climate change and the risks incurred by socioeconomic instability and changes in land use. Anthropogenic impacts, non-sustainable practices and habitat erosion have motivated current international efforts which focused on Brazil as host of 'Rio+20' the United Nation's twentieth anniversary conference on sustainable development. The revised targets of the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) are responses to species decline and realizing Target 8, which concerns ex situ conservation, places the heaviest burdens on countries that are custodians of the highest levels of global biodiversity. At the scientific level, ex situ conservation of endemic species in genebanks is often hindered by a lack of information about molecular genetics and problematic (recalcitrant) storage behaviors that restrict the preservation of flora native to Megadiverse countries. The potential for applying the 'Biospecimen Science' paradigm in expediting conservation in biodiversity-rich biomes is considered using Brazil as an exemplar of a Megadiverse country. The impacts of process chains on the quality of preserved plant germplasm and using evidence-based research to improve conservation outcomes, risk and quality management systems are appraised. The Biospecimen Science approach is not intended to displace conventional conservation practices but rather, to enhance their effectiveness in terms of the scale and efficiency of their scientific and technical operations. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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