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News Article | February 21, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Research found that women ages 65 to 80 with omega-3 blood levels in the highest quartile were 20 percent less likely to die from any cause than those in the lowest quartile A study published in the Journal of Clinical Lipidology found that higher levels of EPA and DHA omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in red blood cells were associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in postmenopausal women. The study specifically examined associations with the omega-3 index, a measure of EPA and DHA levels in red blood cells. Over a 15-year period, the research found that women ages 65 to 80 with omega-3 blood levels in the highest quartile were 20 percent less likely to die from any cause than those in the lowest quartile. The study analyzed data from more than 6,500 women aged 65-80 who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, which began in 1996. The women's PUFA levels were measured in 1996 and then the health outcomes were tracked through August 2014, with the primary outcome being all-cause mortality. After a median of 14.9 years of follow-up, 28.5 percent of the women had passed away. The analysis was adjusted for a wide variety of lifestyle and other factors such as smoking, physical activity and history of cardiovascular disease. This was a prospective cohort study, or a study that follows a group of similar people (a cohort) over time to observe correlations between various factors and health outcomes. "This is the largest -but far from the only - study to confirm that blood levels of EPA and DHA omega-3 fatty acids, in this case the omega-3 index, are independent predictors of risk for death," said Dr. William Harris, lead author of the study and founder of OmegaQuant Analytics (where the samples were analyzed). "These findings support the view that higher EPA and DHA omega-3 levels are associated with better overall health." Although this study was observational and did not analyze the effect of a specific intervention, the authors estimated that intakes of approximately 1g of EPA and DHA per day were required to increase omega-3 status from the lowest quartile observed in this study (3.6 percent) to the highest quartile (7.1percent). This approximately equals two and a half to three salmon fillets per week according to the USDA Nutrient Database, or the amount that could be obtained from 1-3 softgels or one teaspoon of a liquid omega-3 supplement daily. "This study adds to a larger body of evidence demonstrating the positive correlation between higher omega-3 index levels and general wellness," said Adam Ismail, Executive Director of the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s (GOED). "The results gathered over a 15-year period support the notion that adequate omega-3 intake is an important part of a healthy lifestyle, just like exercise and following a well-balanced diet." To put the results of this study in context, a recent paper by Murphy et al found that the omega-3 status of more than 80 percent of Americans was below the omega-3 index observed in the highest quartile in this study. Another paper by Stark et al found that very low omega-3 levels "were observed in North America, Central and South America, Europe, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, and Africa." Thirteen prior studies have also been conducted in this area, twelve of which have found statistically significant reductions in mortality risk associated with the highest levels of omega-3s. These studies can be found in the supplementary data of the Harris paper, with the addition of two studies by Miura et al published last month. To increase omega-3 intake, it's important to consume specific fish species that contain high levels of EPA and DHA, like salmon, tuna and sardines. Depending on which other foods someone incorporates into his or her diet, a typical person might spend up to $40 per month on these fish to reach this level of omega-3 status. It's also possible to obtain this level of EPA and DHA for about $16 per month with supplement use. The FDA considers dosages of EPA and DHA up to 3g per day Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS), a higher level than the 1g per day estimated as a requirement to move from the lowest to highest quartile of omega-3 status in this study. However, consumers should always consult a healthcare provider if they have any concerns or questions before making significant changes to their diet or supplementation habits, and can ask to have their omega-3 levels tested. The study was funded by a grant from the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute in the United States. GOED was not affiliated with the study in any way, but OmegaQuant is a member of GOED. EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) are long-chain omega-3 PUFAs that are abundant in fish, shellfish, and some algae and genetically engineered plants. The body needs omega-3s to develop and function optimally in every stage of life. There are more than 30,000 published studies on EPA and DHA, including more than 3,700 human clinical trials. The vast body of science associated with EPA and DHA supports consumption for overall wellness, including heart, brain and eye health. GOED recommends consuming 500mg of EPA and DHA per day for general health, and higher quantities for specific life stages or health conditions. Most of the global population consumes significantly less EPA and DHA than recommended. Consumers can learn more at AlwaysOmega3s.com GOED, the Global Organization for EPA and DHA Omega-3s, is a trade association representing 200 companies worldwide active in the EPA and DHA omega-3 industry. EPA and DHA are critical components of the diet that are backed by more clinical science than any other nutrient. GOED's membership includes all segments of the omega-3 supply chain from fishing and seafood companies, to refiners, supplement manufacturers, food and beverage marketers and pharmaceutical companies. GOED's members agree to adhere to product quality and ethical standards that are as strict or more strict than any set of regulations in the world. GOED focuses specifically on addressing the insufficient consumption of EPA and DHA in the human diet by promoting global consumption of EPA and DHA and protecting the consumer by making sure our members produce quality products. Visit GOEDOmega3.com for more information.

Yoon T.,Economy Energy | Ma Y.,Economy Energy | Rhodes C.,EPA
Energy Policy | Year: 2015

For Korea's two most popular apartment heating systems - Individual Heating (IH) and District Heating (DH), - user convenience rests heavily on location of the boiler, availability of hot water, administration of the system, and user control of indoor temperature. A double-bounded dichotomous choice method estimates consumer value for convenience, in a hypothetical market. Higher-income more-educated consumers in more expensive apartments prefer DH. Cost-conscious consumers, who use more electrical heating appliances and more actively adjust separate room temperatures, prefer IH. With willingness-to-pay (WTP) defined as the price ratio between IH and DH, 800 survey respondents indicate a WTP of 4.0% for DH over IH. IH users unfamiliar with DH expect little greater convenience (0.1% WTP), whereas the WTP for DH users runs to 7.9%, demonstrating consumer loyalty. Quantified estimates of consumer preference and convenience can inform design of a full-cost-plus pricing system with a price cap. Results here indirectly predict the effect of abolishing regulations that exclusively establish district heating zones. Strategies to foster the many external benefits of DH systems should stress not their lower cost, but convenience, comfort, and safety. Higher installation costs still hamper DH expansion, so policy-makers could set policies to lower cost barriers to entry. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Burton R.,Lockheed Martin | Rosati-Rowe J.,EPA
ACM SIGGRAPH 2013 Posters, SIGGRAPH 2013 | Year: 2013

The homeland security community requires a unique solution to the challenges of studying exposure to aerosol-based contaminants. The goal of this work is to create a comprehensive computational, morphologically-realistic model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while making the model adaptable for age, race, sex, and health.

Joseph Bachman L.,EPA | Erb A.,EPA | Sellers J.,Southwest Research Institute
SAE Technical Papers | Year: 2014

Road tests of class 8 tractor trailers were conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on a new and retreaded tires of varying rolling resistance in order to provide estimates of the quantitative relation between rolling resistance and fuel consumption. Reductions in fuel consumption were measured using the SAE J1231 (reaffirmation of 1986) test method. Vehicle rolling resistance was calculated as a load-weighted average of the rolling resistance (as measured by ISO28580) of the tires in each axle position. Both new and retreaded tires were tested in different combinations to obtain a range of vehicle coefficient of rolling resistance from a baseline of 7.7 kg/ton to 5.3 kg/ton. Reductions in fuel consumption displayed a strong linear relationship with coefficient of rolling resistance, with a maximum reduction of fuel consumption of 10 percent relative to the baseline. The return factor for the new tires was 1: 3.1, that is, a one percent decrease in fuel consumption is obtained by a 3.1 percent decrease in rolling resistance. These results are consistent with earlier studies conducted in the 1980s despite the numerous changes in truck design made since that time. Equipping a tractor with low rolling resistance tires provided 7.4 percent of the reduction of fuel consumption, even when baseline tires were used on the trailer. Retreaded tires provided a lower reduction in fuel consumption, with a return factor of 1:4. Retesting of both new and retreaded tires provided reductions in fuel consumption of 7.3 to 7.6 percent suggesting that the first test result may have been an anomaly. The results demonstrate the value of conducting multiple SAE J1321 tests to evaluate variability in on-road testing. The relationships derived from the tests approximate what would be expected based on mathematical models. These results can be used to estimate reductions in fuel consumption and emissions from tires without additional road testing, and they can be used to characterize potential benefits using vehicle models of fuel consumption and emissions.

PubMed | U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of physiology. Lung cellular and molecular physiology | Year: 2016

The prevalence of a sedentary (SED) life style combined with calorically rich diets has spurred the rise in childhood obesity, which, in turn, translates to adverse health effects in adulthood. Obesity and lack of active (ACT) lifestyle may increase susceptibility to air pollutants. We housed 22-day-old female Long-Evans rats in a cage without (SED) or with a running wheel (ACT). After 10 wk the rats ran 310 16.3 km. Responses of SED and ACT rats to whole-body O

The Risoux forest (about 1250 m a.s.l.) constitutes an original woodland by its subalpine feature and its biogeographical location within the Jura Range, very close to the border with Switzerland. Passerines were censused over 3, 300ha in 2010-14 combining IPA (n = 30) and census plot (22ha). The total number of passerine species was of 45 (mean richness of 35.6 species per year). The global density of passerines reaches 63 pairs/10ha. The abundance of species linked to coniferous trees is striking. The comparison with data and densities collected previously in 1964-66 shows the following development: increasing number of breeding species, increasing densities and biomass, a more regular repartition of species according to their biomass. The arrival of species linked to mixed lowland woodlands which were previously absent confirms that several species now occur at higher elevations. Owing to the stability of woodland habitats, most of the changes may be related to increasing mean winter and annual temperatures by 2.5°C - 3°C measured over 50 years.

Stout A.,EPA
Global Automotive Management Council - Emissions 2012, Papers - Proceedings | Year: 2012

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized regulations for emissions of toxic air pollutants from certain in-use stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE) in 2010. The final standards completed EPA's statutory obligation to address emissions of toxic air pollutants, also known as hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and criteria air pollutants from stationary RICE. The EPA estimates that by 2015, these emissions regulations will result in annual nationwide emission reductions of 332,000 tpy of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 556,000 tpy of carbon monoxide (CO), 21,000 tpy of HAP, and 12,000 tpy of particulate matter (PM).

Bernstein J.,EPA
Environmental Forum | Year: 2013

The article discusses how the US president Barack Obama will move on another round of multi-media requirements for power plants, ozone air quality limits, hydraulic fracturing rules, sulfur limits for fuels, and the Keystone pipeline. In late November, Obama signed into law a bill to block US airlines from participating in the European Union's GHG emissions trading program. That disappointed environmentalists who had called on Obama to veto a measure that they tagged as the president's first test on climate change since Hurricane Sandy renewed concerns that rising temperatures are responsible for severe storms. While Obama said he will continue to advocate for a climate agenda, any new efforts would occur only after he has consulted with scientists, engineers, and elected officials on what can be done in the short-term. Republicans' turn to administrative and constitutional procedure suggests some new legislative tactics are likely in store, though their new approaches face significant hurdles.

Coda T.,EPA
Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association's Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA | Year: 2010

As part of its NEPA analysis, an action's air quality impacts must be assessed to determine if they are significant. Under Section 176(c) of the Clean Air Act (CAA), no department, agency, or instrumentality of the Federal Government shall engage in, support in any way or provide financial assistance for, license or permit, or approve, any activity which does not conform to an implementation plan after it has been approved. Under NEPA, air quality analyses must assess direct, indirect. and cumulative effects; conformity analyses assess only direct and indirect effects. A discussion on general conformity requirements and revised rule covers EPA regulations implementing the CAA Designation of Areas for Air Quality Planning Purposes (40 cFR 81); Transportation and General Conformity Rules; determining whether the total direct and indirect emissions are below or above the de minimis levels, e.g., VOC, NOx, CO, and PM2.5; SIP control requirements; EPA's Guidelines on Air Quality Models; ways of demonstrating conformity; evaluation of emissions from transportation plans, transportation improvement programs, and projects before they are funded or approved; mitigation measures; and implementation/enforcement processes. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 103rd Air and Waste Management Association Annual Conference and Exhibition (Calgary, Alberta, Canada 6/22-25/2010).

Bernstein J.,EPA
Environmental Forum | Year: 2015

Policymakers are so divided on energy and environmental policy issues they are unlikely to agree on much of anything Climate change policy has become a litmus test for each side. Most Republicans claim little or no scientific knowledge of it and hence have no need to act but most Democrats see it as a defining, generational issue Things are more complicated on the Republican side, where a contested presidential primary is likely to drive GOP candidates. Rather than threaten a government shutdown or seek to block the GHG rule, many in the business community are instead urging GOP leaders to propose narrow changes, such as easing compliance deadlines. The American Legislative Exchange Council, the conservative group that targets state legislatures, is already preparing model legislation that would require states to win approval from their legislatures before submitting plans to comply with EPA?s existing source GHG rule.

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