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EPA
Las Vegas, NV, United States

The Risoux forest (about 1250 m a.s.l.) constitutes an original woodland by its subalpine feature and its biogeographical location within the Jura Range, very close to the border with Switzerland. Passerines were censused over 3, 300ha in 2010-14 combining IPA (n = 30) and census plot (22ha). The total number of passerine species was of 45 (mean richness of 35.6 species per year). The global density of passerines reaches 63 pairs/10ha. The abundance of species linked to coniferous trees is striking. The comparison with data and densities collected previously in 1964-66 shows the following development: increasing number of breeding species, increasing densities and biomass, a more regular repartition of species according to their biomass. The arrival of species linked to mixed lowland woodlands which were previously absent confirms that several species now occur at higher elevations. Owing to the stability of woodland habitats, most of the changes may be related to increasing mean winter and annual temperatures by 2.5°C - 3°C measured over 50 years.


Burton R.,Lockheed Martin | Rosati-Rowe J.,EPA
ACM SIGGRAPH 2013 Posters, SIGGRAPH 2013 | Year: 2013

The homeland security community requires a unique solution to the challenges of studying exposure to aerosol-based contaminants. The goal of this work is to create a comprehensive computational, morphologically-realistic model of the human respiratory system that can be used to study the inhalation, deposition, and clearance of contaminants, while making the model adaptable for age, race, sex, and health.


Stout A.,EPA
Global Automotive Management Council - Emissions 2012, Papers - Proceedings | Year: 2012

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized regulations for emissions of toxic air pollutants from certain in-use stationary reciprocating internal combustion engines (RICE) in 2010. The final standards completed EPA's statutory obligation to address emissions of toxic air pollutants, also known as hazardous air pollutants (HAP), and criteria air pollutants from stationary RICE. The EPA estimates that by 2015, these emissions regulations will result in annual nationwide emission reductions of 332,000 tpy of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 556,000 tpy of carbon monoxide (CO), 21,000 tpy of HAP, and 12,000 tpy of particulate matter (PM).


Bernstein J.,EPA
Environmental Forum | Year: 2013

The article discusses how the US president Barack Obama will move on another round of multi-media requirements for power plants, ozone air quality limits, hydraulic fracturing rules, sulfur limits for fuels, and the Keystone pipeline. In late November, Obama signed into law a bill to block US airlines from participating in the European Union's GHG emissions trading program. That disappointed environmentalists who had called on Obama to veto a measure that they tagged as the president's first test on climate change since Hurricane Sandy renewed concerns that rising temperatures are responsible for severe storms. While Obama said he will continue to advocate for a climate agenda, any new efforts would occur only after he has consulted with scientists, engineers, and elected officials on what can be done in the short-term. Republicans' turn to administrative and constitutional procedure suggests some new legislative tactics are likely in store, though their new approaches face significant hurdles.


Lee S.-J.,University of Michigan-Flint | Hawkins T.R.,Enviance | Ingwersen W.W.,EPA | Young D.M.,Chemical Safety for Sustainability
Journal of Industrial Ecology | Year: 2015

Ecological footprint (EF) is a metric that estimates human consumption of biological resources and products, along with generation of waste greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in terms of appropriated productive land. There is an opportunity to better characterize land occupation and effects on the carbon cycle in life cycle assessment (LCA) models using EF concepts. Both LCA and EF may benefit from the merging of approaches commonly used separately by practitioners of these two methods. However, few studies have compared or integrated EF with LCA. The focus of this research was to explore methods for improving the characterization of land occupation within LCA by considering the EF method, either as a complementary tool or impact assessment method. Biofuels provide an interesting subject for application of EF in the LCA context because two of the most important issues surrounding biofuels are land occupation (changes, availability, and so on) and GHG balances, two of the impacts that EF is able to capture. We apply EF to existing fuel LCA land occupation and emissions data and project EF for future scenarios for U.S. transportation fuels. We find that LCA studies can benefit from lessons learned in EF about appropriately modeling productive land occupation and facilitating clear communication of meaningful results, but find limitations to the EF in the LCA context that demand refinement and recommend that EF always be used along with other indicators and metrics in product-level assessments. © 2015, Yale University.

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