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Ennigerloh, Germany

This study focuses on the palynology of Guadalupian (Middle Permian) strata of SE Turkey, especially on late Wordian and earliest Capitanian deposits, which are dated by foraminifers and can be chronostratigraphically related to the geological timescale. Herein, palynological species, such as Altitriletes densus, Cymatiosphaera gondwanensis and Praecolpatites sinuosus, previously characteristic for Pakistan, Australia and Antarctica are recorded. Therefore, the Permian biozones of marine fauna and the palynology of SE Turkey and the rest of the Arabian area and Australia are compared and correlated. This long-distance, eastern Gondwana-wide biostratigraphical correlation, conducted for the first time in the Guadalupian epoch in this study, showed that Corisaccites alutas has a similar Last Occurrence Datum in SE Turkey and in Australia. The correlation also showed that in the late Wordian a number of species were present throughout eastern Gondwana, whereas the distribution of other certain species was influenced by provincialism. Hence, it may be concluded that certain species of parent plants probably co-occurred Gondwana-wide, while the distribution of others was dependant on climate. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Stolle E.,University of Greifswald | Stolle E.,EP Research | Yalcin M.N.,Istanbul University | Kavak O.,Dicle University
Geological Journal | Year: 2011

The Kas Formation in SE Turkey was deposited as part of the Permian sequence on the northern margin of the Arabian Plate. Its stratigraphic relationship to time-equivalent strata of the Arabian Plate was mentioned briefly in previous studies, but has not been elaborated and illustrated in detail. This biostratigraphic review of existing palaeontological data has improved the accuracy of age interpretation for the Kas Formation, and the relationship of its excellent palynological record to the international Permian chronostratigraphic units. As a result, this study has identified a number of key palynological species from the Kas Formation, which occur as well as in the 'Basal Khuff Clastics' of Saudi Arabia and in the 'Khuff transition section' of Oman. All these units have approximately the same age: Wordian to early Capitanian, based on 'age control' provided by Foraminifera. This study also demonstrates that, by using key palynological taxa, correlation of strata would be possible across the entire Arabian Plate in this narrow time range. Hence, the 'Oman and Saudi Arabia Palynological Zone 6' (OSPZ6) is applicable throughout the Arabian Plate area, including the northern regions of SE Turkey and Iraq. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

The palynological record from the Permian part of the Çakraz Formation from the Çamdağ area of NW Turkey has been investigated in order to obtain a more precise age assessment than achieved in previous studies. The 'Late Permian' age and a possible age range beginning in the Roadian (mid Permian) were discussed before for sections of palynomorph-bearing strata occurring within the formation. These deposits are now assigned to the late Cisuralian/Guadalupian and considered to be not older than early Kungurian, and not younger than Capitanian. The new age assessment was conducted via a long-distance, intercontinental palynostratigraphic correlation from NW Turkey to South America, where results of radiometric datings were linked to some siliciclastic sections by absolute ages to the chronostratigraphy. Common conspicuous taxa in pollen-dominated assemblages from both regions are Lueckisporites and Vittatina such as Lueckisporites virkkiae, L.latisaccus, L.stenotaeniatus, Vittatina corrugata, V.subsaccata and V.wodehousei. These species co-occur in strata of the northern as well as southern palaeohemisphere settings (NW Turkey and S America). Thus, Lueckisporites latisaccus, L.stenotaeniatus and Vittatina corrugata are, as well as L.virkkiae or V.subsaccata, considered as being cosmopolitan. Due to the more precise palynological dating of part of the Çakraz Formation and surrounding deposits they are here broadly correlated with Permian continental successions from the Southern Alps, Italy, including the Val Daone Conglomerate and the Verrucano Lombardo/Val Gardena Sandstone (Gröden) red beds, and the Rotliegend deposits of Germany. These results support some earlier views regarding the age and stratigraphic equivalences with European deposits. The new age for the Çakraz Formation also supports recent considerations as middle Permian (part Guadalupian), and as Cisuralian for the lower parts of the formation, such as the fossil-bearing section with plants and tetrapod traces further east in NW Turkey, where the unit also crops out. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Palynological assemblages from the Çamdaǧ area of NW Turkey are analysed quantitatively and qualitatively. All preparations logged from different palynomorph sampling sections show high ratios of pollen. Within the pollen fraction per cent ages of up to 71% for the bisaccate pollen Lueckisporites Potonié and Klaus 1954 are remark able. This pattern is reminiscent of palynofloras de scribed from the upper Permian of Europe. This enables the study area to be shown in its palaeogeographic context, and constrains interpretation of microfloral affinities, palynostratigraphy, and depositional environment. The palaeoenvironmental model clearly indicates deposition within the hinter land, corroborating previous interpretations.

Part of the AK-1X well section from the Amasra area of the Zonguldak Basin in NW Turkey (Asia Minor) has been palynologically revised. Over the depth range -342.05 to -344.90 m atypical co-occurrences of the key stratigraphic spore species Sinuspores sinuatus together with Vestispora fenestrata, V. laevigata, Torispora securis and Thymospora spp. are recorded. By correlation to the 'selected spore ranges and spore zonation of the Carboniferous system in Western Europe', often used as a standard, these palynological assemblages would be correlated to the upper Bolsovian by the presence of Thymospora spp. with some reworked older material, represented by S. sinuatus. Alternative spore ranges are considered in this study, and miospore ranges of selected species from Western Europe and North America are discussed. The correlation of the palynological record from the re-investigated AK-1X well section to the chronostratigraphy corresponds with ages around the Duckmantian-Bolsovian boundary, and correlation to the uppermost Duckmantian is discussed as a possibility. However, recent studies lead to the conclusion that a lower Bolsovian age determination for the AK-1X well section is also most probable. Accordingly, Sinuspores sinuatus has a slightly expanded range top in NW Turkey and some taxa such as Thymospora spp. occur slightly earlier here than in Western Europe.

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