Ren Y.,University of Leeds |
Stuart G.W.,University of Leeds |
Houseman G.A.,University of Leeds |
Dando B.,RockTalk Imaging Ltd. |
And 4 more authors.
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2012
The Carpathian-Pannonian system of Eastern and Central Europe represents a unique opportunity to study the interaction between surface tectonic processes involving convergence, extension and convective overturn in the upper mantle. Here, we present high-resolution images of upper mantle structure beneath the region from P-wave finite-frequency teleseismic tomography to help constrain such geodynamical interactions. We have selected earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.5 in the distance range 30°-95°, which occurred between 2006 and 2011. The data were recorded on 54 temporary stations deployed by the South Carpathian Project (2009-2011), 56 temporary stations deployed by the Carpathian Basins Project (2005-2007), and 131 national network broadband stations. The P-wave relative arrival times are measured in two frequency bands (0.5-2.0. Hz and 0.1-0.5. Hz), and are inverted for Vp perturbation maps in the upper mantle. Our images show a sub-vertical slab of fast material beneath the eastern Alps which extends eastward across the Pannonian basin at depths below ~300. km. The fast material extends down into the mantle transition zone (MTZ), where it spreads out beneath the entire basin. Above ~300. km, the upper mantle below the Pannonian basin is dominated by relatively slow velocities, the largest of which extends down to ~200. km. We suggest that cold mantle lithospheric downwelling occurred below the Pannonian Basin before detaching in the mid-Miocene. In the Vrancea Zone of SE Romania, intermediate-depth (75-180. km) seismicity occurs at the NE end of an upper mantle high velocity structure that extends SW under the Moesian Platform, oblique to the southern edge of the South Carpathians. At greater depths (180-400. km), a sub-circular high velocity anomaly is found directly beneath the seismicity. This sub-vertical high-velocity body is bounded by slow anomalies to the NW and SE, which extend down to the top of the MTZ. No clear evidence of a residual slab is observed above the MTZ beneath the Eastern Carpathians. These observations suggest that intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea Zone is unlikely to be due to slab tearing, but rather could be explained by either gravitational instability or delamination of mantle lithosphere. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Heilig B.,Eotvos Lorand Geophysical Institute
Measurement Science and Technology | Year: 2012
In this note, a simple method is introduced for the determination of the pitch angle between two coil axes by means of a total field magnetometer. This method is applicable when the homogeneous volume inside the coils is large enough to accommodate the sensor of a total field magnetometer. The orthogonality of calibration coil systems used for calibration of vector magnetometers can be calibrated by this procedure. The method can be easily automated and applied for the calibration of delta inclination-delta declination (dIdD) magnetometers. © 2012 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Heilig B.,Eotvos Lorand Geophysical Institute |
Lotz S.,Hermanus Geomagnetic Observatory |
Lotz S.,Rhodes University |
Vero J.,Hungarian Academy of Sciences |
And 4 more authors.
Annales Geophysicae | Year: 2010
It is known that under certain solar wind (SW)/interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions (e.g. high SW speed, low cone angle) the occurrence of ground-level Pc3-4 pulsations is more likely. In this paper we demonstrate that in the event of anomalously low SW particle density, Pc3 activity is extremely low regardless of otherwise favourable SW speed and cone angle. We re-investigate the SW control of Pc3 pulsation activity through a statistical analysis and two empirical models with emphasis on the influence of SW density on Pc3 activity. We utilise SW and IMF measurements from the OMNI project and ground-based magnetometer measurements from the MM100 array to relate SW and IMF measurements to the occurrence of Pc3 activity. Multiple linear regression and artificial neural network models are used in iterative processes in order to identify sets of SW-based input parameters, which optimally reproduce a set of Pc3 activity data. The inclusion of SW density in the parameter set significantly improves the models. Not only the density itself, but other density related parameters, such as the dynamic pressure of the SW, or the standoff distance of the magnetopause work equally well in the model. The disappearance of Pc3s during low-density events can have at least four reasons according to the existing upstream wave theory: 1. Pausing the ion-cyclotron resonance that generates the upstream ultra low frequency waves in the absence of protons, 2. Weakening of the bow shock that implies less efficient reflection, 3. The SW becomes sub-Alfvénic and hence it is not able to sweep back the waves propagating upstream with the Alfvén-speed, and 4. The increase of the standoff distance of the magnetopause (and of the bow shock). Although the models cannot account for the lack of Pc3s during intervals when the SW density is extremely low, the resulting sets of optimal model inputs support the generation of mid latitude Pc3 activity predominantly through upstream waves. © Author(s) 2010.
Dando B.D.E.,University of Leeds |
Stuart G.W.,University of Leeds |
Houseman G.A.,University of Leeds |
Hegedus E.,Eotvos Lorand Geophysical Institute |
And 2 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2011
Subducted slab roll-back, lithospheric instability and asthenospheric extrusion have all been proposed as mechanisms that explain the evolution of the extensional Pannonian Basin, within the convergent arc of the Alpine-Carpathian mountain system in central Europe. We determine the P- and S-wave velocity structure of the mantle to depths of 850km beneath this region using tomographic inversion of relative arrival-time residuals from 225 (P waves) and 124 (S waves) teleseismic earthquakes recorded by 56 stations of the Carpathian Basins Project (CBP) temporary seismic network (16-month duration) and 44 permanent seismic stations. The observed median P-wave relative arrival-time residuals vary between -1.13s (early) in the Alps and 1.12s (late) at the western end of the Carpathians; S-wave relative arrival-time residuals are about twice as large (-2.13s and 3.39s). We tested the effect of deterministic corrections on our relative arrival-time residuals using crustal velocity models from controlled source experiments, but show that the use of station terms in the inversion provides a robust method of correcting for near-surface crustal variation. Our tomographic models reduce the P-wave rms residual by 71 per cent to 0.130s and our S-wave rms residual by 59 per cent to 0.624s. At shallow sublithospheric depths we image several localized lower velocity regions, correlated with higher heat flow and interpreted as upwelling asthenosphere. We image a high velocity structure down to depths of about 350km beneath the Eastern Alps. Further east, beneath the Pannonian Basin, a deeper continuation of the Eastern Alps fast anomaly is imaged trending E-W from ∼300km depth and extending into the mantle transition zone (MTZ). In the MTZ we image a fast anomaly extending outwards as far as the Carpathians, the Dinarides and the Eastern Alps. This higher velocity mantle material is interpreted as being produced by a mantle downwelling, whose detachment from the lithosphere above may have triggered the extension of the Pannonian Basin. © 2011 The Authors. Geophysical Journal International © 2011 RAS.
Hrubcova P.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Sroda P.,Polish Academy of Sciences |
Grad M.,University of Warsaw |
Geissler W.H.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research |
And 3 more authors.
Geophysical Journal International | Year: 2010
The Variscan orogeny is the major Middle to Late Palaeozoic tectonometamorphic event in central Europe, and the Bohemian Massif is the largest exposure of rocks deformed during this orogeny. The Bohemian Massif consists of the Saxothuringian, Barrandian and Moldanubian units. Adjacent to this massif in the southeast, the Western Carpathians form an arc-shaped mountain range related to the Alpine orogeny during the Cretaceous to Tertiary. The complex crustal-scale geological structure of the Variscan Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians, and especially their contact, were analysed in this study employing the data of the SUDETES 2003 international seismic refraction experiment. The analysed seismic data were acquired along the 740 km long, NW-SE oriented S04 profile that crossed the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians before terminating in the Pannonian Basin. The data were interpreted by 2-D trial-and-error forward modelling of P waves, and additional constraints on crustal structure were provided by gravity modelling.The complex velocity structure derived in our analysis included low velocities of 5.85 km s-1 at the contact of the Saxothuringian and Barrandian units that reflect the presence of low-density granites. There are distinct lateral variations in deep crustal structure in the transition between the Bohemian Massif and the Western Carpathians. The abrupt change of the crustal thickness in this transition zone may be associated with the Pieniny Klippen Belt, a deep-seated boundary between the colliding Palaeozoic lithospheric plate to the north and the ALCAPA microplate to the south. In the upper crust of this transition, low velocities of 4 km s-1 extend to 6 km and represent the sedimentary fill of the Carpathian Flysch and Foredeep that thins towards the foreland. This basin is also expressed as a pronounced gravity low. The Moho in the Carpathians reaches a depth of 32-33 km. In contrast, in the Pannonian Basin the Moho rises to a depth of 25 km, which corresponds to the Pannonian gravity high. © 2010 The Authors Geophysical Journal International © 2010 RAS.