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Ehdaie B.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Sylvester R.,EORTC Headquarters | Herr H.W.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center
European Urology

Context Despite the effectiveness of bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) therapy in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NIMBC) to delay recurrence and disease progression, the evidence supporting maintenance treatment and its optimal duration is unkown. Objective The purposes of this paper are to critically review the evidence supporting the use of maintenance BCG after an initial series of induction instillations and to illustrate the factors contributing to current dilemmas in establishing the optimal duration of BCG treatment. Evidence acquisition The following terms were used in Medline database searches for original articles published before February 1, 2013: bladder cancer, urothelial cancer, bacillus Calmette-Guérin, maintenance, and induction. All randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses, including those based on indirect comparisons, were evaluated. Evidence synthesis Seven randomized studies compared induction BCG plus maintenance to induction alone, with or without retreatment with BCG on recurrence. All but one of these studies were underpowered and the largest study used a broad, composite end point: worsening-free survival. Seven meta-analyses have been conducted, three of which included data from observational cohort studies. They demonstrated the benefit of maintenance BCG to reduce disease recurrence and delay progression compared to various control groups; however, the analyses were based on suboptimal data. Although there is new evidence that 1 yr of maintenance BCG is sufficient treatment in intermediate-risk patients, the optimal duration of BCG maintenance remains unknown. A new randomized trial is proposed, which includes induction BCG with retreatment on recurrence as a control arm, to study this question. Conclusions The optimal duration of BCG treatment in patients with NMIBC remains unknown and should be the subject of further studies. We recommend that in addition to 3 yr of maintenance BCG, guideline panels also include 1 yr of therapy and induction BCG with retreatment on recurrence as a possible treatment options for patients with NMIBC, albeit with a lower level of evidence and grade of recommendation. © 2013 European Association of Urology. Source

Nordlinger B.,University of Versailles | Sorbye H.,University of Bergen | Glimelius B.,Uppsala University | Poston G.J.,University of Liverpool | And 14 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology

Background: Previous results of the EORTC intergroup trial 40983 showed that perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 (folinic acid, fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) increases progression-free survival (PFS) compared with surgery alone for patients with initially resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Here we present overall survival data after long-term follow-up. Methods: This randomised, controlled, parallel-group, phase 3 study recruited patients from 78 hospitals across Europe, Australia, and Hong Kong. Eligible patients aged 18-80 years who had histologically proven colorectal cancer and up to four liver metastases were randomly assigned (1:1) to either perioperative FOLFOX4 or surgery alone. Perioperative FOLFOX4 consisted of six 14-day cycles of oxaliplatin 85mg/m2, folinic acid 200 mg/m2 (DL form) or 100 mg/m2 (L form) on days 1-2 plus bolus, and fluorouracil 400 mg/m2 (bolus) and 600 mg/m2 (continuous 22 h infusion), before and after surgery. Patients were centrally randomised by minimisation, adjusting for centre and risk score and previous adjuvant chemotherapy to primary surgery for colorectal cancer, and the trial was open label. Analysis of overall survival was by intention to treat in all randomly assigned patients. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00006479. Findings: Between Oct 10, 2000, and July 5, 2004, 364 patients were randomly assigned to a treatment group (182 patients in each group, of which 171 per group were eligible and 152 per group underwent resection). At a median follow-up of 8·5 years (IQR 7·6-9·5), 107 (59%) patients in the perioperative chemotherapy group had died versus 114 (63%) in the surgery-only group (HR 0·88, 95% CI 0·68-1·14; p=0·34). In all randomly assigned patients, median overall survival was 61·3 months (95% CI 51·0-83·4) in the perioperative chemotherapy group and 54·3 months (41·9-79·4) in the surgery alone group. 5-year overall survival was 51·2% (95% CI 43·6-58·3) in the perioperative chemotherapy group versus 47·8% (40·3-55·0) in the surgery-only group. Two patients in the perioperative chemotherapy group and three in the surgery-only group died from complications of protocol surgery, and one patient in the perioperative chemotherapy group died possibly as a result of toxicity of protocol treatment. Interpretation: We found no difference in overall survival with the addition of perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 compared with surgery alone for patients with resectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer. However, the previously observed benefit in PFS means that perioperative chemotherapy with FOLFOX4 should remain the reference treatment for this population of patients. Funding: Norwegian and Swedish Cancer Societies, Cancer Research UK, Ligue Nationale Contre Cancer, US National Cancer Institute, Sanofi-Aventis. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

The integration of molecular information in clinical decision making is becoming a reality. These changes are shaping the way clinical research is conducted, and as reality sets in, the challenges in conducting, managing and organising multi-disciplinary research become apparent. Clinical trials provide a platform to conduct translational research (TR) within the context of high quality clinical data accrual. Integrating TR objectives in trials allows the execution of pivotal studies that provide clinical evidence for biomarker-driven treatment strategies, targeting early drug development trials to a homogeneous and well defined patient population, supports the development of companion diagnostics and provides an opportunity for deepening our understanding of cancer biology and mechanisms of drug action. To achieve these goals within a clinical trial, developing translational research infrastructure and capabilities (TRIC) plays a critical catalytic role for translating preclinical data into successful clinical research and development. TRIC represents a technical platform, dedicated resources and access to expertise promoting high quality standards, logistical and operational support and unified streamlined procedures under an appropriate governance framework. TRIC promotes integration of multiple disciplines including biobanking, laboratory analysis, molecular data, informatics, statistical analysis and dissemination of results which are all required for successful TR projects and scientific progress. Such a supporting infrastructure is absolutely essential in order to promote high quality robust research, avoid duplication and coordinate resources. Lack of such infrastructure, we would argue, is one reason for the limited effect of TR in clinical practice beyond clinical trials. Source

Verleye L.,EORTC Headquarters | Vergote I.,University Hospitals Leuven | Van Der Zee A.G.J.,University of Groningen
European Journal of Surgical Oncology

Quality of surgery is one of the most important determinants of the outcome in ovarian cancer patients. Surgery by a gynaecological oncologist in a specialised, high-volume environment and removal of all visible tumours are associated with a higher likelihood of favourable outcome for patients with advanced-stage ovarian cancer. Population-based studies in Europe however show that a substantial number of patients do not receive optimal surgical care. Less than half of the patients suffering from advanced-stage ovarian cancer are operated by a gynaecological oncologists. Also the proportion of patients operated in a high-volume or specialised hospital is lower than 50%. In a substantial number of patients, minimum standard procedures are not performed and optimal tumor debulking is not achieved. To improve the quality of care, efforts are needed to develop and implement robust evidence-based European guidelines, provide surgical training for gynaecological oncologists and establish comprehensive cancer networks with sufficient resources. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Scosyrev E.,University of Rochester | Messing E.M.,University of Rochester | Sylvester R.,EORTC Headquarters | Campbell S.,Cleveland Clinic | Van Poppel H.,University Hospital
European Urology

Background In the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) randomized trial 30904, nephron-sparing surgery (NSS) was associated with reduced overall survival compared with radical nephrectomy (RN) over a median follow-up of 9.3 yr (hazard ratio: 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-2.16). Objective To examine the impact of NSS relative to RN on kidney function in EORTC 30904. Design, setting, and participants This phase 3 international randomized trial was conducted in patients with a small (≤5 cm) renal mass and normal contralateral kidney who were enrolled from March 1992 to January 2003. Intervention Patients were randomized to RN (n = 273) or NSS (n = 268). Outcome measurements and statistical analysis Follow-up estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR; milliliters per minute per 1.73 m 2) were recorded for 259 subjects in the RN arm and 255 subjects in the NSS arm. Percentages of subjects developing at least moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR <60), advanced kidney disease (eGFR <30), or kidney failure (eGFR <15) were calculated for each treatment arm based on the lowest recorded follow-up eGFR (intent-to-treat analysis). Results and limitations With a median follow-up of 6.7 yr, eGFR <60 was reached by 85.7% with RN and 64.7% with NSS, with a difference of 21.0% (95% CI, 13.8-28.3); eGFR <30 was reached by 10.0% with RN and 6.3% with NSS, with a difference of 3.7% (95% CI, -1.0 to 8.5); and eGFR <15 was reached by 1.5% with RN and 1.6% with NSS, with a difference of -0.1% (95% CI, -2.2 to 2.1). Lack of longer follow-up for eGFR is a limitation of these analyses. Conclusions Compared with RN, NSS substantially reduced the incidence of at least moderate renal dysfunction (eGFR <60), although with available follow-up the incidence of advanced kidney disease (eGFR <30) was relatively similar in the two treatment arms, and the incidence of kidney failure (eGFR <15) was nearly identical. The beneficial impact of NSS on eGFR did not result in improved survival in this study population. Registration EORTC trial 30904; ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00002473. © 2013 European Association of Urology. Source

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