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Stuttgart, Germany

Heblinski J.,Brauhausgasse 1 | Schmieder K.,University of Hohenheim | Heege T.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Agyemang T.K.,University of Hohenheim | And 2 more authors.

Physics-based remote sensing in littoral environments for ecological monitoring and assessment is a challenging task that depends on adequate atmospheric conditions during data acquisition, sensor capabilities and correction of signal disturbances associated with water surface and water column. Airborne hyper-spectral scanners offer higher potential than satellite sensors for wetland monitoring and assessment. However, application in remote areas is often limited by national restrictions, time and high costs compared to satellite data. In this study, we tested the potential of the commercial, high-resolution multi-spectral satellite QuickBird for monitoring littoral zones of Lake Sevan (Armenia). We present a classification procedure that uses a physics-based image processing system (MIP) and GIS tools for calculating spatial metrics. We focused on classification of littoral sediment coverage over three consecutive years (2006-2008) to document changes in vegetation structure associated with a rise in water levels. We describe a spectral unmixing algorithm for basic classification and a supervised algorithm for mapping vegetation types. Atmospheric aerosol retrieval, lake-specific parameterisation and validation of classifications were supported by underwater spectral measurements in the respective seasons. Results revealed accurate classification of submersed aquatic vegetation and sediment structures in the littoral zone, documenting spatial vegetation dynamics induced by water level fluctuations and interannual variations in phytoplankton blooms. The data prove the cost-effective applicability of satellite remote-sensing approaches for high-resolution mapping in space and time of lake littoral zones playing a major role in lake ecosystem functioning. Such approaches could be used for monitoring wetlands anywhere in the world. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010. Source

Bulgarelli B.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Kiselev V.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Zibordi G.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Applied Optics

A methodology has been developed and applied to accurately quantify and analyze adjacency effects in satellite ocean color data for a set of realistic and representative observation conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea. The procedure properly accounts for sea surface reflectance anisotropy, off-nadir views, coastal morphology, and atmospheric multiple scattering. The study further includes a sensitivity analysis on commonly applied approximations. Results indicate that, within the accuracy limits defined by the radiometric resolution of ocean color sensors, adjacency effects in coastal waters might be significant at both visible and near-infrared wavelengths up to several kilometers off the coast. These results additionally highlight a significant dependence on the angle of observation, on the directional reflectance properties of the sea surface, and on the atmospheric multiple scattering. © 2014 Optical Society of America. Source

Naumann M.S.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | Naumann M.S.,Center Scientifique Of Monaco | Richter C.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Mott C.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Marine Systems

The continuous release of organic C-rich material by reef-building corals can contribute substantially to biogeochemical processes and concomitant rapid nutrient recycling in coral reef ecosystems. However, our current understanding of these processes is limited to platform reefs exhibiting a high degree of ecosystem closure compared to the globally most common fringing reef type. This study carried out in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) presents the first quantitative budget for coral-derived organic carbon (COC) in a fringing reef and highlights the importance of local hydrodynamics. Diel reef-wide COC release amounted to 1.1 ± 0.2 kmol total organic carbon (TOC) representing 1-3% of gross benthic primary production. Most COC (73%) was released as particulate organic C (POC), the bulk of which (34-63%) rapidly settled as mucus string aggregates accounting for approximately 28% of total POC sedimentation. Sedimentation of mucus strings, but also dilution of suspended and dissolved COC in reef waters retained 82% of diel COC release in the fringing reef, providing a potentially important organic source for a COC-based food web. Pelagic COC degradation represented 0.1-1.6% of pelagic microbial respiration recycling 32% of diel retained COC. Benthic COC degradation contributed substantially (29-47%) to reef-wide microbial respiration in reef sands, including 20-38% by mucus string POC, and consumed approximately 52% of all retained COC. These findings point out the importance of COC as a C carrier for different reef types. COC may further represent a source of organic carbon for faunal communities colonising reef framework cavities complementing the efficient retention and recycling of COC within fringing reef environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bulgarelli B.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Zibordi G.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Kiselev V.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG
AIP Conference Proceedings

A methodology is presented to quantify the adjacency effects induced in satellite ocean color radiometric data by the presence of land in coastal regions. Specifically, the adjacency radiance, defined as the difference in top-ofatmosphere (TOA) signal when accounting for and when neglecting nearby mainland, is parameterized to decouple the dependence on the optical properties of land and water from those of atmosphere and sea surface, and from measurement geometry. The methodology is applied for a set of realistic satellite observation conditions, along a transect in the Northern Adriatic Sea crossing the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT, 45.31N, 12.51E) ocean color validation site. The newly developed Novel Adjacency pert Urbation Simulator for Coast Al Areas (NAUSICAA) 3D backward Monte Carlo code and the well established highly accurate plane-parallel FEM radiative transfer code, are used to simulate signal contributions at TOA. Results at relevant ocean color center-wavelengths for the AAOT site indicate average adjacency radiance contributions at TOA lower than ±0.5% in the visible spectral region, while reaching about 2% at 765 and 865 nm. Summer cases exhibit values above the average, while the opposite is observed for winter cases. As expected, the largest adjacency contributions occur for slanted satellite observations from over the land. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Agyemang T.K.,University of Hohenheim | Heblinski J.,University of Hohenheim | Heblinski J.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Schmieder K.,University of Hohenheim | And 2 more authors.

The necessity of assessing the accuracy of spatial data derived from remote sensing methods and used in geographic information system (GIS) analyses has been regarded as a critical component of many projects. In this article, supervised classified Quick- Bird satellite imageries of submersed macrophytes of the Gavaraget region of Lake Sevan (Armenia) during 2006-2008 are validated in a GIS environment. The results of this assessment are represented by error matrices presenting the overall accuracy, the user and producer accuracies in each category, as well as the kappa coefficients. The assessments were done at three levels: the vegetation types, the growth (vertical) type, and the species levels. At the vegetation level, an overall accuracy of more than 86% was achieved in 2006 and 2007, while that in 2008 was about 72%. Substantial agreements were achieved between the classified remote sensing data and the reference (groundtruth) data for both 2006 and 2007. Only a fair agreement was attained in 2008. The kappa coefficients ranged from 0.39 to 0.89. At the growth type level, only the 2006 classification attained a substantial agreement, with an overall accuracy of 80%. The 2007 and 2008 classifications had above average and average overall accuracies of 72 and 64%, respectively. The kappa coefficient had a lowest value of 0.35 and a highest value of 0.70 at the growth type level. At the species level, Chara spp. or Zannichellia palustris and Potamogeton pectinatus had high user accuracies of more than 90% and a high overall accuracy of 82% in 2006. High user accuracies (>80%) occurred for P. pectinatus (for 2007 and 2008) and No Vegetation (for 2007). The remaining species, however, had low user and producer accuracies of less than 64%. The kappa coefficients ranged between 0.36 and 0.73 at the species level. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010. Source

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