EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG

Gilching, Germany

EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG

Gilching, Germany
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Guanter L.,German Research Center for Geosciences | Guanter L.,University of Valencia | Ruiz-Verdu A.,National Institute for Aerospace Technology INTA | Odermatt D.,University of Zürich | And 6 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2010

Traditional methods for aerosol retrieval and atmospheric correction of remote sensing data over water surfaces are based on the assumption of zero water reflectance in the near-infrared. Another type of approach which is becoming very popular in atmospheric correction over water is based on the simultaneous retrieval of atmospheric and water parameters through the inversion of coupled atmospheric and bio-optical water models. Both types of approaches may lead to substantial errors over optically-complex water bodies, such as case II waters, in which a wide range of temporal and spatial variations in the concentration of water constituents is expected. This causes the water reflectance in the near-infrared to be non-negligible, and that the water reflectance response under extreme values of the water constituents cannot be described by the assumed bio-optical models. As an alternative to these methods, the SCAPE-M atmospheric processor is proposed in this paper for the automatic atmospheric correction of ENVISAT/MERIS data over inland waters. A-priori assumptions on the water composition and its spectral response are avoided by SCAPE-M by calculating reflectance of close-to-land water pixels through spatial extension of atmospheric parameters derived over neighboring land pixels. This approach is supported by the results obtained from the validation of SCAPE-M over a number of European inland water validation sites which is presented in this work. MERIS-derived aerosol optical thickness, water reflectance and water pigments are compared to in-situ data acquired concurrently to MERIS images in 20 validation match-ups. SCAPE-M has also been compared to specific processors designed for the retrieval of lake water constituents from MERIS data. The performance of SCAPE-M to reproduce ground-based measurements under a range of water types and the ability of MERIS data to monitor chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin pigments using semiempirical algorithms after SCAPE-M processing are discussed. It has been found that SCAPE-M is able to provide high accurate water reflectance over turbid waters, outperforming models based on site-specific bio-optical models, although problems of SCAPE-M to cope with clear waters in some cases have also been identified. © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Muller R.,German Aerospace Center | Bachmann M.,German Aerospace Center | Makasy C.,German Aerospace Center | De Miguel A.,German Aerospace Center | And 12 more authors.
IEEE Aerospace Conference Proceedings | Year: 2010

12The German Aerospace Center DLR - namely the Applied Remote Sensing Cluster CAF and the German Space Operations Center GSOC - is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program). The Applied Remote Sensing Cluster has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition, processing, and analysis of hyperspectral image data. This paper mainly addresses the concept of the operational and automatic processing chain and the calibration / data quality to generate high quality data products. ©2010 IEEE.

Naumann M.S.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | Naumann M.S.,Center Scientifique Of Monaco | Richter C.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Mott C.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2012

The continuous release of organic C-rich material by reef-building corals can contribute substantially to biogeochemical processes and concomitant rapid nutrient recycling in coral reef ecosystems. However, our current understanding of these processes is limited to platform reefs exhibiting a high degree of ecosystem closure compared to the globally most common fringing reef type. This study carried out in the northern Gulf of Aqaba (Red Sea) presents the first quantitative budget for coral-derived organic carbon (COC) in a fringing reef and highlights the importance of local hydrodynamics. Diel reef-wide COC release amounted to 1.1 ± 0.2 kmol total organic carbon (TOC) representing 1-3% of gross benthic primary production. Most COC (73%) was released as particulate organic C (POC), the bulk of which (34-63%) rapidly settled as mucus string aggregates accounting for approximately 28% of total POC sedimentation. Sedimentation of mucus strings, but also dilution of suspended and dissolved COC in reef waters retained 82% of diel COC release in the fringing reef, providing a potentially important organic source for a COC-based food web. Pelagic COC degradation represented 0.1-1.6% of pelagic microbial respiration recycling 32% of diel retained COC. Benthic COC degradation contributed substantially (29-47%) to reef-wide microbial respiration in reef sands, including 20-38% by mucus string POC, and consumed approximately 52% of all retained COC. These findings point out the importance of COC as a C carrier for different reef types. COC may further represent a source of organic carbon for faunal communities colonising reef framework cavities complementing the efficient retention and recycling of COC within fringing reef environments. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Kiselev V.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Bulgarelli B.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Heege T.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2015

The presented adjacency correction algorithm is based on the use of the point spread function (PSF) which allows calculating the contribution of reflections from the nearby pixels to the apparent radiance of the target. The analytical expression of the PSF for an arbitrary stratified atmosphere is obtained in the approximation of primary scattering, whereas the full equation of radiative transfer is used for the estimation of the radiance reflected from the surface. The algorithm is sensor independent and can be applied for processing images of water basins with arbitrary shape of the shore line and under different geometries of observation. The program using this algorithm is included in Modular Inversion Program - MIP (Heege et al., 2014) for processing of satellite images on a routine basis. Examples of processing results are presented in the paper. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Bulgarelli B.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Kiselev V.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Zibordi G.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra
Applied Optics | Year: 2014

A methodology has been developed and applied to accurately quantify and analyze adjacency effects in satellite ocean color data for a set of realistic and representative observation conditions in the northern Adriatic Sea. The procedure properly accounts for sea surface reflectance anisotropy, off-nadir views, coastal morphology, and atmospheric multiple scattering. The study further includes a sensitivity analysis on commonly applied approximations. Results indicate that, within the accuracy limits defined by the radiometric resolution of ocean color sensors, adjacency effects in coastal waters might be significant at both visible and near-infrared wavelengths up to several kilometers off the coast. These results additionally highlight a significant dependence on the angle of observation, on the directional reflectance properties of the sea surface, and on the atmospheric multiple scattering. © 2014 Optical Society of America.

Bulgarelli B.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Zibordi G.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Kiselev V.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG
AIP Conference Proceedings | Year: 2013

A methodology is presented to quantify the adjacency effects induced in satellite ocean color radiometric data by the presence of land in coastal regions. Specifically, the adjacency radiance, defined as the difference in top-ofatmosphere (TOA) signal when accounting for and when neglecting nearby mainland, is parameterized to decouple the dependence on the optical properties of land and water from those of atmosphere and sea surface, and from measurement geometry. The methodology is applied for a set of realistic satellite observation conditions, along a transect in the Northern Adriatic Sea crossing the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT, 45.31N, 12.51E) ocean color validation site. The newly developed Novel Adjacency pert Urbation Simulator for Coast Al Areas (NAUSICAA) 3D backward Monte Carlo code and the well established highly accurate plane-parallel FEM radiative transfer code, are used to simulate signal contributions at TOA. Results at relevant ocean color center-wavelengths for the AAOT site indicate average adjacency radiance contributions at TOA lower than ±0.5% in the visible spectral region, while reaching about 2% at 765 and 865 nm. Summer cases exhibit values above the average, while the opposite is observed for winter cases. As expected, the largest adjacency contributions occur for slanted satellite observations from over the land. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

De Miguel A.,German Aerospace Center | Bachmann M.,German Aerospace Center | Makasy C.,German Aerospace Center | Muller R.,German Aerospace Center | And 9 more authors.
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2010

The Applied Remote Sensing Cluster at the German Aerospace Center DLR has long lasting experiences with air- and spaceborne acquisition and processing of hyperspectral image data. Jointly with the German Space Operations Center it is responsible for the establishment of the ground segment of the future German hyperspectral satellite mission EnMAP (Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program) which is planned to be launched in 2013. The primary goal of EnMAP is to quantify and analyze diagnostic parameters describing key processes on the Earth?s surface. Extensive calibration and validation activities are foreseen during the planned five years of operations to ensure high quality data products, which include radiometric, geometric and atmospheric correction. This paper focuses on the automatic processing chain, as well as the calibration and quality control activities for the generation of standard EnMAP products.

Pleskachevsky A.,German Aerospace Center | Lehner S.,German Aerospace Center | Heege T.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Mott C.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG
Ocean Dynamics | Year: 2011

method to obtain underwater topography for coastal areas using state-of-the-art remote sensing data and techniques worldwide is presented. The data from the new Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) satellite TerraSAR-X with high resolution up to 1 m are used to render the ocean waves. As bathymetry is reflected by long swell wave refraction governed by underwater structures in shallow areas, it can be derived using the dispersion relation from observed swell properties. To complete the bathymetric maps, optical satellite data of the QuickBird satellite are fused to map extreme shallow waters, e.g., in near-coast areas. The algorithms for bathymetry estimation from optical and SAR data are combined and integrated in order to cover different depth domains. Both techniques make use of different physical phenomena and mathematical treatment. The optical methods based on sunlight reflection analysis provide depths in shallow water up to 20 m in preferably calm weather conditions. The depth estimation from SAR is based on the observation of long waves and covers the areas between about 70- and 10-m water depths depending on sea state and acquisition quality. The depths in the range of 20 m up to 10 m represent the domain where the synergy of data from both sources arises. Thus, the results derived from SAR and optical sensors complement each other. In this study, a bathymetry map near Rottnest Island, Australia, is derived. QuickBird satellite optical data and radar data fromTerraSARX have been used. The depths estimated are aligned on two different grids. The first one is a uniform rectangular mesh with a horizontal resolution of 150 m, which corresponds to an average swell wavelength observed in the 10×10-km SAR image acquired. The second mesh has a resolution of 150 m for depths up to 20 m (deeper domain covered by SARbased technique) and 2.4 m resolution for the shallow domain imaged by an optical sensor. This new technique provides a platform for mapping of coastal bathymetry over a broad area on a scale that is relevant to marine planners, managers, and offshore industry. © Springer-Verlag 2011.

Heblinski J.,Brauhausgasse 1 | Schmieder K.,University of Hohenheim | Heege T.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Agyemang T.K.,University of Hohenheim | And 2 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2011

Physics-based remote sensing in littoral environments for ecological monitoring and assessment is a challenging task that depends on adequate atmospheric conditions during data acquisition, sensor capabilities and correction of signal disturbances associated with water surface and water column. Airborne hyper-spectral scanners offer higher potential than satellite sensors for wetland monitoring and assessment. However, application in remote areas is often limited by national restrictions, time and high costs compared to satellite data. In this study, we tested the potential of the commercial, high-resolution multi-spectral satellite QuickBird for monitoring littoral zones of Lake Sevan (Armenia). We present a classification procedure that uses a physics-based image processing system (MIP) and GIS tools for calculating spatial metrics. We focused on classification of littoral sediment coverage over three consecutive years (2006-2008) to document changes in vegetation structure associated with a rise in water levels. We describe a spectral unmixing algorithm for basic classification and a supervised algorithm for mapping vegetation types. Atmospheric aerosol retrieval, lake-specific parameterisation and validation of classifications were supported by underwater spectral measurements in the respective seasons. Results revealed accurate classification of submersed aquatic vegetation and sediment structures in the littoral zone, documenting spatial vegetation dynamics induced by water level fluctuations and interannual variations in phytoplankton blooms. The data prove the cost-effective applicability of satellite remote-sensing approaches for high-resolution mapping in space and time of lake littoral zones playing a major role in lake ecosystem functioning. Such approaches could be used for monitoring wetlands anywhere in the world. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

Agyemang T.K.,University of Hohenheim | Heblinski J.,University of Hohenheim | Heblinski J.,EOMAP GmbH and Co. KG | Schmieder K.,University of Hohenheim | And 2 more authors.
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2011

The necessity of assessing the accuracy of spatial data derived from remote sensing methods and used in geographic information system (GIS) analyses has been regarded as a critical component of many projects. In this article, supervised classified Quick- Bird satellite imageries of submersed macrophytes of the Gavaraget region of Lake Sevan (Armenia) during 2006-2008 are validated in a GIS environment. The results of this assessment are represented by error matrices presenting the overall accuracy, the user and producer accuracies in each category, as well as the kappa coefficients. The assessments were done at three levels: the vegetation types, the growth (vertical) type, and the species levels. At the vegetation level, an overall accuracy of more than 86% was achieved in 2006 and 2007, while that in 2008 was about 72%. Substantial agreements were achieved between the classified remote sensing data and the reference (groundtruth) data for both 2006 and 2007. Only a fair agreement was attained in 2008. The kappa coefficients ranged from 0.39 to 0.89. At the growth type level, only the 2006 classification attained a substantial agreement, with an overall accuracy of 80%. The 2007 and 2008 classifications had above average and average overall accuracies of 72 and 64%, respectively. The kappa coefficient had a lowest value of 0.35 and a highest value of 0.70 at the growth type level. At the species level, Chara spp. or Zannichellia palustris and Potamogeton pectinatus had high user accuracies of more than 90% and a high overall accuracy of 82% in 2006. High user accuracies (>80%) occurred for P. pectinatus (for 2007 and 2008) and No Vegetation (for 2007). The remaining species, however, had low user and producer accuracies of less than 64%. The kappa coefficients ranged between 0.36 and 0.73 at the species level. © Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010.

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