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The sensor paves the way for the development of devices - possibly resembling fitness trackers like the Fitbit - which people could wear and then know when and at what dosage to take their medication. "Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems," said Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. "It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine." Javanmard and a diverse team of Rutgers-New Brunswick experts describe their invention in a study published online today in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering. Asthma, which causes inflammation of the airway and obstructs air flow, affects about 300 million people worldwide. About 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children in the United States were diagnosed with asthma in 2014. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Other serious lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Today's non-invasive methods for diagnosing and monitoring asthma are limited in characterizing the nature and degree of airway inflammation, and require costly, bulky equipment that patients cannot easily keep with them. The methods include spirometry, which measures breathing capacity, and testing for exhaled nitric oxide, an indicator of airway inflammation. There's an urgent need for improved, minimally invasive methods for the molecular diagnosis and monitoring of asthma, the study says. Measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate - tiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing - can contribute to understanding asthma at the molecular level and lead to targeted treatment and better disease management. The Rutgers researchers' miniaturized electrochemical sensor accurately measures nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide. Reduced graphene oxide resists corrosion, has superior electrical properties and is very accurate in detecting biomarkers. Graphene is a thin layer of the graphite used in pencils. "Nitrite level in breath condensate is a promising biomarker for inflammation in the respiratory tract. Having a rapid, easy method to measure it can help an asthmatic determine if air pollutants are affecting them so they can better manage use of medication and physical activity," said Clifford Weisel, study co-author and professor at Rutgers' Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). "It could also be used in a physician's office and emergency departments to monitor the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory drugs to optimize treatment." "Increases in airway inflammation may be an early warning sign of increased risk of an asthma attack or exacerbation of COPD, allowing for earlier and more-effective preventive measures or treatment," said Robert Laumbach, study co-author and an occupational and environmental medicine physician at EOHSI. "Just looking at coughing, wheezing and other outward symptoms, diagnosis accuracy is often poor, so that's why this idea of monitoring biomarkers continuously can result in a paradigm shift," said Javanmard, who works in the School of Engineering. "The ability to perform label-free quantification of nitrite content in exhaled breath condensate in a single step without any sample pre-treatment resolves a key bottleneck to enabling portable asthma management." The next step is to develop a portable, wearable system, which could be commercially available within five years, he said. The researchers also envision expanding the number of inflammation biomarkers a device could detect and measure. "In the U.S. alone, allergy inflammation, asthma and various respiratory conditions are all on the rise, so devices that can help diagnose, monitor and manage these conditions will be in high demand," Javanmard said.


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.chromatographytechniques.com

Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists have created a graphene-based sensor that could lead to earlier detection of looming asthma attacks and improve the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases, preventing hospitalizations and deaths. The sensor paves the way for the development of devices – possibly resembling fitness trackers like the Fitbit – which people could wear and then know when and at what dosage to take their medication.   “Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems,” said Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. “It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine.” Javanmard and a diverse team of Rutgers-New Brunswick experts describe their invention in a study published online today in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering. Asthma, which causes inflammation of the airway and obstructs air flow, affects about 300 million people worldwide. About 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children in the United States were diagnosed with asthma in 2014. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Other serious lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Today’s non-invasive methods for diagnosing and monitoring asthma are limited in characterizing the nature and degree of airway inflammation, and require costly, bulky equipment that patients cannot easily keep with them. The methods include spirometry, which measures breathing capacity, and testing for exhaled nitric oxide, an indicator of airway inflammation. There’s an urgent need for improved, minimally invasive methods for the molecular diagnosis and monitoring of asthma, the study says. Measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate – tiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing – can contribute to understanding asthma at the molecular level and lead to targeted treatment and better disease management. The Rutgers researchers’ miniaturized electrochemical sensor accurately measures nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide. Reduced graphene oxide resists corrosion, has superior electrical properties and is very accurate in detecting biomarkers. Graphene is a thin layer of the graphite used in pencils. “Nitrite level in breath condensate is a promising biomarker for inflammation in the respiratory tract. Having a rapid, easy method to measure it can help an asthmatic determine if air pollutants are affecting them so they can better manage use of medication and physical activity,” said Clifford Weisel, study co-author and professor at Rutgers’ Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). “It could also be used in a physician’s office and emergency departments to monitor the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory drugs to optimize treatment.” “Increases in airway inflammation may be an early warning sign of increased risk of an asthma attack or exacerbation of COPD, allowing for earlier and more-effective preventive measures or treatment,” said Robert Laumbach, study co-author and an occupational and environmental medicine physician at EOHSI. “Just looking at coughing, wheezing and other outward symptoms, diagnosis accuracy is often poor, so that’s why this idea of monitoring biomarkers continuously can result in a paradigm shift,” said Javanmard, who works in the School of Engineering. “The ability to perform label-free quantification of nitrite content in exhaled breath condensate in a single step without any sample pre-treatment resolves a key bottleneck to enabling portable asthma management.” The next step is to develop a portable, wearable system, which could be commercially available within five years, he said. The researchers also envision expanding the number of inflammation biomarkers a device could detect and measure. “In the U.S. alone, allergy inflammation, asthma and various respiratory conditions are all on the rise, so devices that can help diagnose, monitor and manage these conditions will be in high demand,” Javanmard said.


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.futurity.org

Scientists have created a sensor that monitors lung inflammation in patients with asthma and other respiratory conditions. The sensor could potentially be used to predict asthma attacks and make diagnosing the condition simpler and more accurate. The sensor paves the way for the development of devices—possibly resembling fitness trackers like the Fitbit—which people could wear and then know when and at what dosage to take their medication. “Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems,” says Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the department of electrical and computer engineering at Rutgers University. “It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine.” Javanmard and his fellow team members describe their invention in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering. Asthma, which causes inflammation of the airway and obstructs air flow, affects about 300 million people worldwide. About 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children in the United States were diagnosed with asthma in 2014. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Other serious lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Today’s non-invasive methods for diagnosing and monitoring asthma are limited in characterizing the nature and degree of airway inflammation, and require costly, bulky equipment that patients cannot easily keep with them. The methods include spirometry, which measures breathing capacity, and testing for exhaled nitric oxide, an indicator of airway inflammation. There’s an urgent need for improved, minimally invasive methods for the molecular diagnosis and monitoring of asthma, the study says. Measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate—tiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing—can contribute to understanding asthma at the molecular level and lead to targeted treatment and better disease management. The researchers’ miniaturized electrochemical sensor accurately measures nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide. Reduced graphene oxide resists corrosion, has superior electrical properties and is very accurate in detecting biomarkers. Graphene is a thin layer of the graphite used in pencils. “Nitrite level in breath condensate is a promising biomarker for inflammation in the respiratory tract. Having a rapid, easy method to measure it can help an asthmatic determine if air pollutants are affecting them so they can better manage use of medication and physical activity,” says Clifford Weisel, study coauthor and professor at the university’s Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). “It could also be used in a physician’s office and emergency departments to monitor the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory drugs to optimize treatment.” “Increases in airway inflammation may be an early warning sign of increased risk of an asthma attack or exacerbation of COPD, allowing for earlier and more-effective preventive measures or treatment,” says Robert Laumbach, study coauthor and an occupational and environmental medicine physician at EOHSI. “Just looking at coughing, wheezing, and other outward symptoms, diagnosis accuracy is often poor, so that’s why this idea of monitoring biomarkers continuously can result in a paradigm shift,” says Javanmard, who works in the School of Engineering. “The ability to perform label-free quantification of nitrite content in exhaled breath condensate in a single step without any sample pre-treatment resolves a key bottleneck to enabling portable asthma management.” The next step is to develop a portable, wearable system, which could be commercially available within five years, he says. The researchers also envision expanding the number of inflammation biomarkers a device could detect and measure. “In the US alone, allergy inflammation, asthma, and various respiratory conditions are all on the rise, so devices that can help diagnose, monitor, and manage these conditions will be in high demand,” Javanmard says.


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists have created a graphene-based sensor that could lead to earlier detection of looming asthma attacks and improve the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases, preventing hospitalizations and deaths. The sensor paves the way for the development of devices - possibly resembling fitness trackers like the Fitbit - which people could wear and then know when and at what dosage to take their medication. "Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems," said Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. "It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine." Javanmard and a diverse team of Rutgers-New Brunswick experts describe their invention in a study published online today in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering. Asthma, which causes inflammation of the airway and obstructs air flow, affects about 300 million people worldwide. About 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children in the United States were diagnosed with asthma in 2014. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Other serious lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Today's non-invasive methods for diagnosing and monitoring asthma are limited in characterizing the nature and degree of airway inflammation, and require costly, bulky equipment that patients cannot easily keep with them. The methods include spirometry, which measures breathing capacity, and testing for exhaled nitric oxide, an indicator of airway inflammation. There's an urgent need for improved, minimally invasive methods for the molecular diagnosis and monitoring of asthma, the study says. Measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate - tiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing - can contribute to understanding asthma at the molecular level and lead to targeted treatment and better disease management. The Rutgers researchers' miniaturized electrochemical sensor accurately measures nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide. Reduced graphene oxide resists corrosion, has superior electrical properties and is very accurate in detecting biomarkers. Graphene is a thin layer of the graphite used in pencils. "Nitrite level in breath condensate is a promising biomarker for inflammation in the respiratory tract. Having a rapid, easy method to measure it can help an asthmatic determine if air pollutants are affecting them so they can better manage use of medication and physical activity," said Clifford Weisel, study co-author and professor at Rutgers' Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). "It could also be used in a physician's office and emergency departments to monitor the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory drugs to optimize treatment." "Increases in airway inflammation may be an early warning sign of increased risk of an asthma attack or exacerbation of COPD, allowing for earlier and more-effective preventive measures or treatment," said Robert Laumbach, study co-author and an occupational and environmental medicine physician at EOHSI. "Just looking at coughing, wheezing and other outward symptoms, diagnosis accuracy is often poor, so that's why this idea of monitoring biomarkers continuously can result in a paradigm shift," said Javanmard, who works in the School of Engineering. "The ability to perform label-free quantification of nitrite content in exhaled breath condensate in a single step without any sample pre-treatment resolves a key bottleneck to enabling portable asthma management." The next step is to develop a portable, wearable system, which could be commercially available within five years, he said. The researchers also envision expanding the number of inflammation biomarkers a device could detect and measure. "In the U.S. alone, allergy inflammation, asthma and various respiratory conditions are all on the rise, so devices that can help diagnose, monitor and manage these conditions will be in high demand," Javanmard said. The study's lead author is Azam Gholizadeh, a doctoral student in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rutgers. Other authors include Damien Voiry, a former Rutgers post-doctoral associate in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering who is now at the University of Montpellier in France; Andrew Gow of the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers; Howard Kipen of EOHSI; and Manish Chhowalla of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.


News Article | May 22, 2017
Site: www.cemag.us

Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists have created a graphene-based sensor that could lead to earlier detection of looming asthma attacks and improve the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases, preventing hospitalizations and deaths. The sensor paves the way for the development of devices — possibly resembling fitness trackers like the Fitbit — which people could wear and then know when and at what dosage to take their medication. “Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems,” says Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. “It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine.” Javanmard and a diverse team of Rutgers-New Brunswick experts describe their invention in a study published online in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering. Asthma, which causes inflammation of the airway and obstructs air flow, affects about 300 million people worldwide. About 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children in the United States were diagnosed with asthma in 2014. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Other serious lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Today’s non-invasive methods for diagnosing and monitoring asthma are limited in characterizing the nature and degree of airway inflammation, and require costly, bulky equipment that patients cannot easily keep with them. The methods include spirometry, which measures breathing capacity, and testing for exhaled nitric oxide, an indicator of airway inflammation. There’s an urgent need for improved, minimally invasive methods for the molecular diagnosis and monitoring of asthma, the study says. Measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate – tiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing — can contribute to understanding asthma at the molecular level and lead to targeted treatment and better disease management. The Rutgers researchers’ miniaturized electrochemical sensor accurately measures nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide. Reduced graphene oxide resists corrosion, has superior electrical properties and is very accurate in detecting biomarkers. Graphene is a thin layer of the graphite used in pencils. “Nitrite level in breath condensate is a promising biomarker for inflammation in the respiratory tract. Having a rapid, easy method to measure it can help an asthmatic determine if air pollutants are affecting them so they can better manage use of medication and physical activity,” says Clifford Weisel, study co-author and professor at Rutgers’ Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). “It could also be used in a physician’s office and emergency departments to monitor the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory drugs to optimize treatment.” “Increases in airway inflammation may be an early warning sign of increased risk of an asthma attack or exacerbation of COPD, allowing for earlier and more-effective preventive measures or treatment,” says Robert Laumbach, study co-author and an occupational and environmental medicine physician at EOHSI. “Just looking at coughing, wheezing and other outward symptoms, diagnosis accuracy is often poor, so that’s why this idea of monitoring biomarkers continuously can result in a paradigm shift,” says Javanmard, who works in the School of Engineering. “The ability to perform label-free quantification of nitrite content in exhaled breath condensate in a single step without any sample pre-treatment resolves a key bottleneck to enabling portable asthma management.” The next step is to develop a portable, wearable system, which could be commercially available within five years, he says. The researchers also envision expanding the number of inflammation biomarkers a device could detect and measure. “In the U.S. alone, allergy inflammation, asthma and various respiratory conditions are all on the rise, so devices that can help diagnose, monitor and manage these conditions will be in high demand,” Javanmard says. The study’s lead author is Azam Gholizadeh, a doctoral student in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Rutgers. Other authors include Damien Voiry, a former Rutgers post-doctoral associate in the Department of Materials Science and Engineering who is now at the University of Montpellier in France; Andrew Gow of the Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy at Rutgers; Howard Kipen of EOHSI; and Manish Chhowalla of the Department of Materials Science and Engineering.


News Article | May 23, 2017
Site: www.rdmag.com

A new graphene sensor could allow medical professionals to detect asthma and other respiratory problems much earlier. Scientists from Rutgers University-New Brunswick have developed a sensor that can be incorporated into a device that alerts a person with asthma when and at what dosage to take their medication. “Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems,” Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, said in a statement. “It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine.” According to the study, the researchers utilized the properties of reduced graphene oxide—particularly because the material is resilient to corrosion, while also exhibiting rapid electron transfer with electrolytes, allowing for highly sensitive electrochemical detection with minimal fouling. Modern asthma diagnosing techniques, including spirometry, which measures breathing capacity and testing for exhaled nitric oxide are costly and invasive. By measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate—tiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing—researchers have found a way to better understand asthma at the molecular level and discover more targeted treatments and better disease management practices. The new electrochemical sensor can accurately measure nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide that resist corrosion and has superior electrical properties, while being able to accurately detect biomarkers. “Nitrite level in breath condensate is a promising biomarker for inflammation in the respiratory tract,” Clifford Weisel, study co-author and professor at Rutgers' Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). “Having a rapid, easy method to measure it can help an asthmatic determine if air pollutants are affecting them so they can better manage use of medication and physical activity. “It could also be used in a physician's office and emergency departments to monitor the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory drugs to optimize treatment.” Robert Laumbach, the study co-author and an occupational and environmental medicine physician at EOHSI, explained that increases in airway inflammation is a warning sign of increased risk of an asthma attack or exacerbation of COPD, which allows professionals to detect the issues earlier and utilize more-effective preventive measures or treatment. The researchers now plan on developing a portable, wearable system that Javanmard said could be available within five years. They also plan on expanding the number of inflammation biomarkers a device could detect and measure. About 300 million people are affected by asthma each year, with about 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children being diagnosed with the disease in the U.S. in 2014. Other lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis. “In the U.S. alone, allergy inflammation, asthma and various respiratory conditions are all on the rise, so devices that can help diagnose, monitor and manage these conditions will be in high demand,” Javanmard said. The study was published in Microsystems & Nanoengineering.


News Article | May 25, 2017
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

Rutgers University-New Brunswick scientists have created a graphene-based sensor that could lead to earlier detection of looming asthma attacks and improve the management of asthma and other respiratory diseases, preventing hospitalizations and deaths. The sensor paves the way for the development of devices -- possibly resembling fitness trackers like the Fitbit -- which people could wear and then know when and at what dosage to take their medication. "Our vision is to develop a device that someone with asthma or another respiratory disease can wear around their neck or on their wrist and blow into it periodically to predict the onset of an asthma attack or other problems," said Mehdi Javanmard, an assistant professor in the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering. "It advances the field of personalized and precision medicine." Javanmard and a diverse team of Rutgers-New Brunswick experts describe their invention in a study published online today in the journal Microsystems & Nanoengineering. Asthma, which causes inflammation of the airway and obstructs air flow, affects about 300 million people worldwide. About 17.7 million adults and 6.3 million children in the United States were diagnosed with asthma in 2014. Symptoms include coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. Other serious lung ailments include chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which encompasses emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Today's non-invasive methods for diagnosing and monitoring asthma are limited in characterizing the nature and degree of airway inflammation, and require costly, bulky equipment that patients cannot easily keep with them. The methods include spirometry, which measures breathing capacity, and testing for exhaled nitric oxide, an indicator of airway inflammation. There's an urgent need for improved, minimally invasive methods for the molecular diagnosis and monitoring of asthma, the study says. Measuring biomarkers in exhaled breath condensate -- tiny liquid droplets discharged during breathing -- can contribute to understanding asthma at the molecular level and lead to targeted treatment and better disease management. The Rutgers researchers' miniaturized electrochemical sensor accurately measures nitrite in exhaled breath condensate using reduced graphene oxide. Reduced graphene oxide resists corrosion, has superior electrical properties and is very accurate in detecting biomarkers. Graphene is a thin layer of the graphite used in pencils. "Nitrite level in breath condensate is a promising biomarker for inflammation in the respiratory tract. Having a rapid, easy method to measure it can help an asthmatic determine if air pollutants are affecting them so they can better manage use of medication and physical activity," said Clifford Weisel, study co-author and professor at Rutgers' Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI). "It could also be used in a physician's office and emergency departments to monitor the effectiveness of various anti-inflammatory drugs to optimize treatment." "Increases in airway inflammation may be an early warning sign of increased risk of an asthma attack or exacerbation of COPD, allowing for earlier and more-effective preventive measures or treatment," said Robert Laumbach, study co-author and an occupational and environmental medicine physician at EOHSI. "Just looking at coughing, wheezing and other outward symptoms, diagnosis accuracy is often poor, so that's why this idea of monitoring biomarkers continuously can result in a paradigm shift," said Javanmard, who works in the School of Engineering. "The ability to perform label-free quantification of nitrite content in exhaled breath condensate in a single step without any sample pre-treatment resolves a key bottleneck to enabling portable asthma management." The next step is to develop a portable, wearable system, which could be commercially available within five years, he said. The researchers also envision expanding the number of inflammation biomarkers a device could detect and measure. "In the U.S. alone, allergy inflammation, asthma and various respiratory conditions are all on the rise, so devices that can help diagnose, monitor and manage these conditions will be in high demand," Javanmard said.


Greenberg M.,Rutgers University | Lioy P.,EOHSI | Ozbas B.,Rutgers University | Mantell N.,Rutgers University | And 8 more authors.
Risk Analysis | Year: 2013

We built three simulation models that can assist rail transit planners and operators to evaluate high and low probability rail-centered hazard events that could lead to serious consequences for rail-centered networks and their surrounding regions. Our key objective is to provide these models to users who, through planning with these models, can prevent events or more effectively react to them. The first of the three models is an industrial systems simulation tool that closely replicates rail passenger traffic flows between New York Penn Station and Trenton, New Jersey. Second, we built and used a line source plume model to trace chemical plumes released by a slow-moving freight train that could impact rail passengers, as well as people in surrounding areas. Third, we crafted an economic simulation model that estimates the regional economic consequences of a variety of rail-related hazard events through the year 2020. Each model can work independently of the others. However, used together they help provide a coherent story about what could happen and set the stage for planning that should make rail-centered transport systems more resistant and resilient to hazard events. We highlight the limitations and opportunities presented by using these models individually or in sequence. © 2013 Society for Risk Analysis.


Coughlin J.L.,EOHSI | Coughlin J.L.,Rutgers University | Thomas P.E.,EOHSI | Thomas P.E.,Rutgers University | And 2 more authors.
Drug Metabolism and Disposition | Year: 2012

Genistein is a natural phytoestrogen of the soybean, and bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics. Both genistein and BPA disrupt the endocrine system in vivo and in vitro. Growing concerns of altered xenobiotic metabolism due to concomitant exposures from soy milk in BPA-laden baby bottles has warranted the investigation of the glucuronidation rate of genistein in the absence and presence (25 μM) of BPA by human liver microsomes (HLM) and rat liver microsomes (RLM). HLM yield V max values of 0.93 ± 0.10 nmol · min -1 · mg -1 and 0.62 ± 0.05 nmol · min -1 · mg -1 in the absence and presence of BPA, respectively. K m values for genistein glucuronidation by HLM in the absence and presence of BPA are 15.1 ± 7.9 μM and 21.5 ±7.7 μM, respectively, resulting in a K i value of 58.7 μM for BPA. Significantly reduced V max and unchanged K m in the presence of BPA in HLM are suggestive of noncompetitive inhibition. In RLM, the presence of BPA resulted in a K i of 35.7 μM, an insignificant change in V max (2.91 ± 0.26 nmol · min -1 · mg -1 and 3.05 · 0.41 nmol · min -1 · mg -1 in the absence and presence of BPA, respectively), and an increase in apparent K m (49.4 ± 14 μM with no BPA and 84.0 ± 28 μM with BPA), indicative of competitive inhibition. These findings are significant because they suggest that BPA is capable of inhibiting the glucuronidation of genistein in vitro, and that the type of inhibition is different between HLM and RLM. Copyright © 2012 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.


Vallero D.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Isukapalli S.,EOHSI
Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology | Year: 2014

A prospective personal exposure study, involving indoor and outdoor releases, was conducted in upper Midtown Manhattan in New York City as part of the Urban Dispersion Program (UDP) focusing on atmospheric dispersion of chemicals in complex urban settings. The UDP experiments involved releases of very low levels of perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) in Midtown Manhattan at separate locations, during two seasons in 2005. The study presented here includes both outdoor and indoor releases of the tracers, and realistic scripted activities for characterizing near source and neighborhood-scale exposures using 1-min and 10-min duration samples, respectively. Results showed that distributions of individual tracers and exposures to them within the study area were significantly influenced by surface winds, urban terrain, and movements of people typical of urban centers. Although in general, PFT levels returned quickly to zero in general after cessation of the emissions, in some cases, the concentrations stayed at higher levels after the releases stopped. This is likely due to accumulation of the PFTs in some buildings, which then serve as "secondary sources" when outside levels are lower than indoor levels. Measurements of neighborhood-scale PFT concentrations (up to distances of several blocks away from the release points) provided information needed to establish a baseline for determining how different types of releases could affect exposures both to the general public and to emergency responders. These data highlight the factors impacting the toxic threat levels following releases of hazardous chemicals and provide supporting information for evaluating and refining protocols for emergency event response.© 2014 Nature America, Inc.

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