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PubMed | University of Padua, Eo Galliera Hospital, University of Verona, Anglia Ruskin University and 3 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry | Year: 2016

We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the influence of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) therapy on nutritional status and weight across observational and interventional studies. Two authors searched major electronic databases from inception until 10/14/2015 for longitudinal, open-label and randomised double-blind placebo controlled (randomised controlled trials (RCTs)) studies of AChEIs in patients with dementia reporting nutritional status outcome data. Out of 3551 initial hits, 25 studies (12 open-label trials, 9 RCTs and 4 longitudinal studies) including 10792 patients with dementia were meta-analysed. In longitudinal studies (median follow-up 6months), a significant cumulative incidence of weight loss between baseline and follow-up evaluation was observed (studies=2; 5%; 95% CI 1% to 34%, p<0.0001; I


Mello A.M.,Eo Galliera Hospital | Paroni G.,Gerontology Geriatric Research Laboratory | Daragjati J.,S Antonio Hospital | Pilotto A.,Eo Galliera Hospital
Digestive Diseases | Year: 2016

Studies on populations at different ages have shown that after birth, the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition keeps evolving, and this seems to occur especially in old age. Significant changes in GI microbiota composition in older subjects have been reported in relation to diet, drug use and the settings where the older subjects are living, that is, in community nursing homes or in a hospital. Moreover, changes in microbiota composition in the old age have been related to immunosenescence and inflammatory processes that are pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathways of frailty. Frailty is an age-related condition of increased vulnerability to stresses due to the impairment in multiple inter-related physiologic systems that are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes, such as falls, delirium, institutionalization, hospitalization and death. Preliminary data suggest that changes in microbiota composition may contribute to the variations in the biological, clinical, functional and psycho-social domains that occur in the frail older subjects. Multidimensional evaluation tools based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) have demonstrated to be useful in identifying and measuring the severity of frailty in older subjects. Thus, a CGA approach should be used more widely in clinical practice to evaluate the multidimensional effects potentially related to GI microbiota composition of the older subjects. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in restoring the microbiota changes of older subjects, promoting different aspects of health in elderly people as improving immune function and reducing inflammation. Whether modulation of GI microbiota composition, with multi-targeted interventions, could have an effect on the prevention of frailty remains to be further investigated in the perspective of improving the health status of frail 'high risk' older individuals. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.


PubMed | Health Directorate, U.S. National Institute on Aging, Eo Galliera Hospital, University of Bari and 11 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of cardiology | Year: 2016

Clinical decision-making for statin treatment in older patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) is under debate, particularly in community-dwelling frail patients at high risk of death. In this retrospective observational study on 2,597 community-dwelling patients aged 65years with a previous hospitalization for CAD, we estimated mortality risk assessed with the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), based on the Standardized Multidimensional Assessment Schedule for Adults and Aged Persons (SVaMA), used to determine accessibility to homecare services/nursing home admission in 2005 to 2013 in the Padua Health District, Veneto, Italy. Participants were categorized as having mild (MPI-SVaMA-1), moderate (MPI-SVaMA-2), and high (MPI-SVaMA-3) baseline mortality risk, and propensity score-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 3-year mortality rate were calculated according to statin treatment in these subgroups. Greater MPI-SVaMA scores were associated with lower rates of statin treatment and higher 3-year mortality rate (MPI-SVaMA-1= 23.4%; MPI-SVaMA-2= 39.1%; MPI-SVaMA-3= 76.2%). After adjusting for propensity score quintiles, statin treatment was associated with lower 3-year mortality risk irrespective of MPI-SVaMA group (HRs [95% confidence intervals] 0.45 [0.37 to 0.55], 0.44 [0.36 to 0.53], and 0.28 [0.21 to 0.39] in MPI-SVaMA-1, -2, and -3 groups, respectively [interaction test p= 0.202]). Subgroup analyses showed that statin treatment was also beneficial irrespective of age (HRs [95% confidence intervals] 0.38 [0.27 to 0.53], 0.45 [0.38 to 0.54], and 0.44 [0.37 to 0.54] in 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85 year age groups, respectively [interaction test p= 0.597]). In conclusion, in community-dwelling frail older patients with CAD, statin treatment was significantly associated with reduced 3-year mortality rate irrespective of age and multidimensional impairment, although the frailest patients were less likely to be treated with statins.


PubMed | U.S. National Institute on Aging, Unit of Biostatistics, University of Ferrara, Gerontology Geriatrics Research Laboratory and 3 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Age and ageing | Year: 2016

prediction of length of stay (LOS) may be useful to optimise care plans to reduce the negative outcomes related to hospitalisation.to evaluate whether the Multidimensional Prognostic Index (MPI), based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA), may predict LOS in hospitalised older patients.prospective multicentre cohort study.twenty Geriatrics Units.patients aged 65 and older consecutively admitted to Geriatrics Units.at admission, the CGA-based MPI was calculated by using a validated algorithm that included information on basal and instrumental activities of daily living, cognitive status, nutritional status, the risk of pressures sores, co-morbidity, number of drugs and co-habitation status. According to validated cut-offs, subjects were divided into three groups of risk, i.e. MPI-1 low risk (value 0.33), MPI-2 moderate risk (value 0.34-0.66) and MPI-3 severe risk of mortality (value 0.67).two thousand and thirty-three patients were included; 1,159 were women (57.0%). Age- and sex-adjusted mean LOS in patients divided according to the MPI grade was MPI-1 = 10.1 (95% CI 8.6-11.8), MPI-2 = 12.47 (95% CI 10.7-14.68) and MPI-3 = 13.41 (95% CI 11.5-15.7) days (P for trend <0.001). The overall accuracy of the MPI to predict LOS was good (C-statistic 0.74, 95% CI 0.72-0.76). Moreover, a statistically significant trend of LOS means was found even in patients stratified according to their International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) main diagnosis.the MPI is an accurate predictor of LOS in older patients hospitalised with the most frequent diseases.


PubMed | Eli Lilly and Company, University Paul Sabatier, Eo Galliera Hospital, Vrije Universiteit Brussel and 15 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Aging clinical and experimental research | Year: 2016

Sarcopenia is an age-related muscle condition which is frequently a precursor of frailty, mobility disability and premature death. It has a high prevalence in older populations and presents a considerable social and economic burden. Potential treatments are under development but, as yet, no guidelines support regulatory studies for new drugs to manage sarcopenia. The objective of this position paper is therefore to suggest a set of potential endpoints and target population definitions to stimulate debate and progress within the medico-scientific and regulatory communities.A multidisciplinary expert working group was hosted by the European Society for Clinical and Economic Aspects of Osteoporosis and Osteoarthritis, which reviewed and discussed the recent literature from a perspective of clinical experience and guideline development. Relevant parallels were drawn from the development of definition of osteoporosis as a disease and clinical assessment of pharmaceutical treatments for that indication.A case-finding decision tree is briefly reviewed with a discussion of recent prevalence estimations of different relevant threshold values. The selection criteria for patients in regulatory studies are discussed according to the aims of the investigation (sarcopenia prevention or treatment) and the stage of project development. The possible endpoints of such studies are reviewed and a plea is made for the establishment of a core outcome set to be used in all clinical trials of sarcopenia.The current lack of guidelines for the assessment of new therapeutic treatments for sarcopenia could potentially hinder the delivery of effective medicines to patients at risk.


Ameri P.,New York University | Ameri P.,University of Genoa | Giusti A.,Eo Galliera Hospital | Boschetti M.,University of Genoa | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2013

The interplay between vitamin D and IGF-I is complex and occurs at both endocrine and paracrine/autocrine levels. Vitamin D has been shown to increase circulating IGF-I and IGFBP-3, with the consistent finding of a positive correlation between vitamin D and IGF-I serum values in population-based cohorts of healthy subjects. The modulation of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 concentrations by vitamin D may impact recombinant human (rh) GH dosing for the treatment of GHD. It might also underlie some of the extra-skeletal beneficial effects ascribed to vitamin D. On the other hand, IGF-I stimulates renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, which increases calcium and phosphate availability in the body and suppresses PTH secretion. This effect is responsible for an altered calcium-phosphate balance in uncontrolled acromegaly and might also account for the improvement in bone metabolism associated with rhGH treatment in patients with GHD. Data on the paracrine/autocrine vitamin D-IGF-I interactions are abundant, but mostly not linked to one another. As a result, it is not possible to draw a comprehensive picture of the physiological and/or pathological interrelations between vitamin D, IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins (IGFBP) in different tissues. A potential role of vitamin D action is related to its association with carcinogenesis, a paradigm being breast cancer. Current evidence indicates that, in breast tumours, vitamin D modulates the IGF-I/IGFBP ratio to decrease proliferation and increase apoptosis. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | University of Genoa and Eo Galliera Hospital
Type: | Journal: Aging clinical and experimental research | Year: 2016

This study assessed the association between frailty and sociodemographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle factors in community-dwelling older people.This was a cross-sectional survey in a population-based sample of 542 community-dwelling subjects aged 65years and older living in a metropolitan area in Italy. Frailty was evaluated by means of the FRAIL scale proposed by the International Association of Nutrition and Aging. Basal and instrumental activities of daily living (ADL, IADL), physical activity, sociodemographic (age, gender, marital status and cohabitation), socioeconomic (education, economic conditions and occupational status) and lifestyle domains (cultural and technological fruition and social activation) were assessed through specific validated tools. Statistical analysis was performed through multinomial logistic regression.Impairments in ADL and IADL were significantly associated with frailty, while moderate and high physical activity were inversely associated with frailty. Moreover, regarding both socioeconomic variables and lifestyle factors, more disadvantaged socioeconomic conditions and low levels of cultural fruition were significantly associated with frailty.Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors, particularly cultural fruition, are associated with frailty independently from functional impairment and low physical activity. Cultural habits may therefore represent a new target of multimodal interventions against geriatric frailty.


Varenna M.,Gaetano Pini Institute | Bertoldo F.,University of Verona | Di Monaco M.,San Camillo Hospital | Giusti A.,Eo Galliera Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Reumatismo | Year: 2013

The range of osteoporosis treatments is increasingly large and, like any disease, the pharmacological management of patients should involve a risk/benefit evaluation to attain the greatest reduction in risk of fracture with the lowest incidence of adverse events. The aim of this review is to critically appraise the literature about the safety issues of the main pharmacological treatments of osteoporosis. This document is the result of a consensus of experts based on a systematic review of regulatory documents, randomized controlled trials, metaanalyses, pharmacovigilance surveys and case series related to possible adverse drug reactions to osteoporosis treatment with calcium and vitamin D supplements, bisphosphonates, strontium ranelate, selective estrogen receptor modulators, denosumab, and teriparatide. As expected, randomized controlled trials showed only the most common adverse events due to the samples size and the short observation time. Case series and observational studies are able to provide data about uncommon side effects, but in some cases a sure cause-effect relationship needs still to be confirmed. Consistently with methodological limitations, the newer drugs have a tolerance profile that has not been fully explored yet. Osteoporosis treatments showed an overall good tolerance profile with rare serious adverse events that, however, must be well known by the clinician who prescribes these drugs. The concern about possible adverse events should be weighed against the reduction of morbidity and mortality associated with a significant fracture risk reduction.


Mangoni A.A.,Flinders University | Pilotto A.,Eo Galliera Hospital
Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology | Year: 2016

Older patients with various degrees of frailty and disability, a key population target of pharmacological interventions in acute and chronic disease states, are virtually neglected in pre-marketing studies assessing the efficacy and safety of investigational drugs. Moreover, aggressively pursuing established therapeutic targets in old age, e.g. blood pressure, serum glucose or cholesterol concentrations, is not necessarily associated with the beneficial effects, and the acceptable safety, reported in younger patient cohorts. Measures of self-reported health and functional status might represent additional, more meaningful, therapeutic end-points in the older population, particularly in patients with significant frailty and relatively short life expectancy, e.g. in the presence of cancer and/or neurodegenerative disease conditions. Strategies enhancing early knowledge about key pharmacological characteristics of investigational drugs targeting older adults are discussed, together with the rationale for incorporating non-traditional, patient-centred, end-points in this ever-increasing group. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


PubMed | Eo Galliera Hospital
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Digestive diseases (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Studies on populations at different ages have shown that after birth, the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota composition keeps evolving, and this seems to occur especially in old age. Significant changes in GI microbiota composition in older subjects have been reported in relation to diet, drug use and the settings where the older subjects are living, that is, in community nursing homes or in a hospital. Moreover, changes in microbiota composition in the old age have been related to immunosenescence and inflammatory processes that are pathophysiological mechanisms involved in the pathways of frailty. Frailty is an age-related condition of increased vulnerability to stresses due to the impairment in multiple inter-related physiologic systems that are associated with an increased risk of adverse outcomes, such as falls, delirium, institutionalization, hospitalization and death. Preliminary data suggest that changes in microbiota composition may contribute to the variations in the biological, clinical, functional and psycho-social domains that occur in the frail older subjects. Multidimensional evaluation tools based on a Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) have demonstrated to be useful in identifying and measuring the severity of frailty in older subjects. Thus, a CGA approach should be used more widely in clinical practice to evaluate the multidimensional effects potentially related to GI microbiota composition of the older subjects. Probiotics have been shown to be effective in restoring the microbiota changes of older subjects, promoting different aspects of health in elderly people as improving immune function and reducing inflammation. Whether modulation of GI microbiota composition, with multi-targeted interventions, could have an effect on the prevention of frailty remains to be further investigated in the perspective of improving the health status of frail high risk older individuals.

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