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Sabapathy A.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Whittaker J.,Gloucestershire County Council
Energy and Environment | Year: 2011

Gloucestershire County Council (GCC) in the United Kingdom has recently initiated a project to replace all of its halogen lamps in traffic lights with low energy Light Emitting Diode (LED) lamp heads across the County. In order to assess energy savings and carbon reductions from the initiative before implementation, baseline energy monitoring was carried out at 45 sample sites using a power analyzer equipped with a data logger. A regression model to predict annual energy consumption was developed with the numbers of each type of lamp head for each junction as independent variables. The model parameters were then used to estimate baseline emissions for a single trial site where LEDs have been installed and for which energy monitoring was carried out. The estimated baseline energy consumption for this site and the monitored energy consumption after the LEDs have been installed were used to estimate the actual energy savings that can be expected from GCC's initiative. Annual energy savings from this analysis were estimated to range from 64.2 to 74.1 percent (95% Confidence Intervals). The cost savings resulting from the LED initiative were found to payback the investment over a period of about six years. This paper presents a low cost approach and method by which the energy and cost savings of a large scale replacement initiative can be estimated with a single pilot replacement installation of a traffic signal. Such an exercise would be useful for local governments to carry out before making large investment decisions. Source

Vallapuram B.M.,Vee Technologies | Nair G.P.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Thangamani K.,Skr Engineering College
Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing | Year: 2015

Wireless sensor network requires robust and energy efficient communication protocols to minimize the energy consumption as much as possible. Numerous energy-based cluster head election algorithms have been proposed and implemented. However, the capacities and workloads of the neighbors of cluster heads have not been considered in large wireless sensor networks. A convivial energy-based cluster (CEBC) head selection scheme where cluster heads are elected based on the energy value of a node and the energy values of its neighbors is proposed in this paper. This is to ensure that the neighbor nodes within the one hop range of a cluster head do not drain off their energy while forwarding the data to the other member nodes, especially in large networks. Simulations in network simulator have proved that CEBC cluster head selection scheme has improved the lifetime of the network compared to the LEACH protocol. © Springer India 2015. Source

Weyant C.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Athalye V.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Ragavan S.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Rajarathnam U.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Thirteen South Asian brick kilns were tested to quantify aerosol and gaseous pollutant emissions. Particulate matter (PM2.5), carbon monoxide (CO), and optical scattering and absorption measurements in the exhaust of six kiln technologies demonstrate differences in overall emission profiles and relative climate warming resulting from kiln design and fuel choice. Emission factors differed between kiln types, in some cases by an order of magnitude. The kilns currently dominating the sector had the highest emission factors of PM2.5 and light absorbing carbon, while improved Vertical Shaft and Tunnel kilns were lower emitters. An improved version of the most common technology in the region, the zig-zag kiln, was among the lowest emitting kilns in PM2.5, CO, and light absorbing carbon. Emission factors measured here are lower than those currently used in emission inventories as inputs to global climate models; 85% lower (PM2.5) and 35% lower for elemental carbon (EC) for the most common kiln in the region, yet the ratio of EC to total carbon was higher than previously estimated (0.96 compared to 0.47). Total annual estimated emissions from the brick industry are 120 Tg CO 2, 2.5 Tg CO, 0.19 Tg PM2.5, and 0.12 Tg EC. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

Sabapathy A.,East-West Center | Sabapathy A.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Ragavan K.V.S.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Saksena S.,East-West Center
Open Atmospheric Science Journal | Year: 2012

This study investigated 2-wheeler exposures to CO and PM10 along six standardized arterial main road stretches in Bangalore city in India during morning peak (9:00-11:00) and afternoon non-peak hours (13:00-15:00) using personal samplers. Background levels on a local street carrying no traffic and away from main roads were also monitored to determine the actual contributions of vehicular traffic to exposure. Road stretches were selected to compare exposures on two types of routes - inner arterials and outer arterials with different built form characteristics. Results indicate that average background PM10 and CO concentrations were much lower than the respective averages of the 2-wheeler exposures as expected. While PM10 exposures for inner arterials were higher than for outer arterials (p=0.007), differences were much larger for CO (p<0.001). Since the average run speeds were comparable for the stretches, the variations in PM10 and CO could be attributed to different vehicular compositions and built form characteristics of the stretches, but this needs to be verified through further investigation. PM10 exposures during nonpeaks were lower than during morning peaks (p=0.02). However, CO exposures were not very different between non-peak hours and morning peak hours (p=0.138) despite comparable average run speeds and shows that even lower traffic volumes during non-peak hours result in high exposures. Results of various bivariate models indicate that average run speed is a good predictor of CO exposures (R2=0.56) but is only a minor predictor of PM10 exposures (R2=0.18) in Bangalore. © Sabapathy et al. Source

Rajarathnam U.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Athalye V.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Ragavan S.,Enzen Global Solutions Pvt Ltd. | Maithel S.,Greentech Knowledge Solutions Pvt. Ltd. | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2014

India has more than 100,000 brick kilns producing around 250 billion bricks annually. Indian brick industry is often a small scale industry and third largest consumer of coal in the country. With the growing demand for building materials and characterised by lack of pollution control measures the brick industry has a potential to cause adverse effects on the environment. This paper presents assessment of five brick making technologies based on the measurements carried out at seventeen individual brick kilns. Emissions of PM, SO2, CO and CO2 were measured and these emissions were used to estimate the emission factors for comparing the emissions across different fuel or operating conditions. Estimated emission from brick kilns in South Asia are about 0.94 million tonnes of PM; 3.9 million tonnes of CO and 127 million tonnes of CO2 per year. Among various technologies that are widely used in India, Zig zag and vertical shaft brick kilns showed better performance in terms of emissions over the traditional fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns. This suggests that the replacement of traditional technologies with Zig zag, vertical shaft brick kilns or other cleaner kiln technologies will contribute towards improvements in the environmental performance of brick kiln industry in the country. Zig zag kilns appear to be the logical replacement because of low capital investment, easy integration with the existing production process, and the possibility of retrofitting fixed chimney Bull's trench kilns into Zig zag firing. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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