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Jupiter, FL, United States

Using fragment-based screening of a focused fragment library, 2-aminoquinoline 1 was identified as an initial hit for BACE1. Further SAR development was supported by X-ray structures of BACE1 cocrystallized with various ligands and molecular modeling studies to expedite the discovery of potent compounds. These strategies enabled us to integrate the C-3 side chain on 2-aminoquinoline 1 extending deep into the P2′ binding pocket of BACE1 and enhancing the ligand's potency. We were able to improve the BACE1 potency to subnanomolar range, over 10 6-fold more potent than the initial hit (900 μM). Further elaboration of the physical properties of the lead compounds to those more consistent with good blood-brain barrier permeability led to inhibitors with greatly improved cellular activity and permeability. Compound 59 showed an IC 50 value of 11 nM on BACE1 and cellular activity of 80 nM. This compound was advanced into rat pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies and demonstrated significant reduction of Aβ levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Burstein E.S.,Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Carlsson M.L.,Gothenburg University | Owens M.,Acadia Pharmaceuticals, Inc. | Owens M.,DART NeuroScience LLC | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Neural Transmission

(-)-OSU6162 has promise for treating Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease and schizophrenia.Behavioral tests evaluating the locomotor effects of (-) and (+)-OSU6162 on 'low activity' animals (reserpinized mice and habituated rats) and 'high activity' animals (drug naive mice and non-habituated rats) revealed that both enantiomers of OSU6162 had dual effects on behavior, stimulating locomotor activity in 'low activity' animals and inhibiting locomotor activity in 'high activity' animals. To elucidate a plausible mechanism of action for their behavioral effects, we evaluated the intrinsic actions of (-)- and (+)-OSU6162, and a collection of other antipsychotic and antiparkinsonian agents at 5-HT2A and D2 receptors in functional assays with various degrees of receptor reserve, including cellular proliferation, phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis, GTPcS and beta-arrestin recruitment assays. We also tested for possible allosteric actions of (-)-OSU6162 at D2 receptors. Both enantiomers of OSU6162 were medium intrinsic activity partial agonists at 5-HT2A receptors and low intrinsic activity partial agonists at D2 receptors. (+)-OSU6162 had higher efficacy at 5-HT2A receptors, which correlated with its greater stimulatory activity in vivo, but (-)-OSU6162 had higher potency at D2 receptors, which correlated with its greater inhibitory activity in vivo. (-)-OSU6162 did not display any convincing allosteric properties. Both (+)- and (-)- OSU6162 were significantly less active at 27 other monoaminergic receptors and reuptake transporters tested suggesting that D2 and 5-HT2A receptors play crucial roles in mediating their behavioral effects. Compounds with balanced effects on these two receptor systems may offer promise for treating neuropsychiatric diseases. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Hu E.,Amgen Inc. | Ma J.,Amgen Inc. | Biorn C.,Amgen Inc. | Lester-Zeiner D.,Amgen Inc. | And 19 more authors.
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

A radiolabeled tracer for imaging therapeutic targets in the brain is a valuable tool for lead optimization in CNS drug discovery and for dose selection in clinical development. We report the rapid identification of a novel phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) tracer candidate using a LC-MS/MS technology. This structurally distinct PDE10A tracer, AMG-7980 (5), has been shown to have good uptake in the striatum (1.2% ID/g tissue), high specificity (striatum/thalamus ratio of 10), and saturable binding in vivo. The PDE10A affinity (K D) and PDE10A target density (B max) were determined to be 0.94 nM and 2.3 pmol/mg protein, respectively, using [ 3H]5 on rat striatum homogenate. Autoradiography on rat brain sections indicated that the tracer signal was consistent with known PDE10A expression pattern. The specific binding of [ 3H]5 to rat brain was blocked by another structurally distinct, published PDE10A inhibitor, MP-10. Lastly, our tracer was used to measure in vivo PDE10A target occupancy of a PDE10A inhibitor in rats using LC-MS/MS technology. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source

Hu E.,Amgen Inc. | Kunz R.K.,Amgen Inc. | Rumfelt S.,Amgen Inc. | Andrews K.L.,Amgen Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters

We report our successful effort to increase the PDE3 selectivity of PDE10A inhibitor pyridyl cinnoline 1 using a combination of computational modeling and structural-activity relationship investigations. An analysis of the PDE3 catalytic domain compared to the co-crystal structure of cinnoline analog 1 in PDE10A revealed two areas of structural differences in the active sites and suggested areas on the scaffold that could be modified to exploit those unique structural features. Once SAR established the cinnoline as the optimal scaffold, modifications on the methoxy groups of the cinnoline and the methyl group on the pyridine led to the discovery of compounds 33 and 36. Both compounds achieved significant improvement in selectivity against PDE3 while maintaining their PDE10A inhibitory activity and in vivo metabolic stability comparable to 1. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Watt M.L.,Eli Lilly and Company | Schober D.A.,Eli Lilly and Company | Hitchcock S.,Eli Lilly and Company | Hitchcock S.,Envoy Therapeutics | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics

Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia are characterized by expression of psychotic, affective, and cognitive symptoms. Currently, there is a lack of adequate treatment for the cognitive symptoms associated with these diseases. Cholinergic signaling and, in particular, M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (m1AChR) signaling have been implicated in the regulation of multiple cognitive domains. Thus, the M1AChR has been identified as a therapeutic drug target for diseases, such as schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease, that exhibit marked cognitive dysfunction as part of their clinical manifestation. Unfortunately, the development of selective M1 agonist medications has not been successful, mostly because of the highly conserved orthosteric acetylcholine binding site among the five muscarinic receptor subtypes. More recent efforts have focused on the development of allosteric M1AChR modulators that target regions of the receptor distinct from the orthosteric site that are less conserved between family members. However, orthosteric and allosteric ligands may differentially modulate receptor function and ultimately downstream signaling pathways. Thus, the need for highly selective M1AChR orthosteric agonists still exists, not only as a potential therapeutic but also as a pharmacological tool to better understand the physiologic consequences of M1AChR orthosteric activation. Here, we describe the novel, potent and selective M1AChR orthosteric partial agonist LY593093 [N-[(1R,2R)-6-({(1E)-1-[(4-fluorobenzyl)(methyl)amino] ethylidene})amino)-2-hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-yl]biphenyl-4-carboxamide]. This compound demonstrates modest to no activity at the other muscarinic receptor subtypes, stimulates Gαq-coupled signaling events as well as β-arrestin recruitment, and displays significant efficacy in in vivo models of cognition. Copyright © 2011 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. Source

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