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Concorezzo, Italy

Makar P.A.,Environment Canada | Gong W.,Environment Canada | Milbrandt J.,Environment Canada | Hogrefe C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | And 24 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

The meteorological predictions of fully coupled air-quality models running in "feedback" versus "no-feedback" simulations were compared against each other and observations as part of Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative. In the "no-feedback" mode, the aerosol direct and indirect effects were disabled, with the models reverting to either climatologies of aerosol properties, or a no-aerosol weather simulation. In the "feedback" mode, the model-generated aerosols were allowed to modify the radiative transfer and/or cloud formation parameterizations of the respective models. Annual simulations with and without feedbacks were conducted on domains over North America for the years 2006 and 2010, and over Europe for the year 2010.The incorporation of feedbacks was found to result in systematic changes to forecast predictions of meteorological variables, both in time and space, with the largest impacts occurring in the summer and near large sources of pollution. Models incorporating only the aerosol direct effect predicted feedback-induced reductions in temperature, surface downward and upward shortwave radiation, precipitation and PBL height, and increased upward shortwave radiation, in both Europe and North America. The feedback response of models incorporating both the aerosol direct and indirect effects varied across models, suggesting the details of implementation of the indirect effect have a large impact on model results, and hence should be a focus for future research. The feedback response of models incorporating both direct and indirect effects was also consistently larger in magnitude to that of models incorporating the direct effect alone, implying that the indirect effect may be the dominant process. Comparisons across modelling platforms suggested that direct and indirect effect feedbacks may often act in competition: the sign of residual changes associated with feedbacks often changed between those models incorporating the direct effect alone versus those incorporating both feedback processes. Model comparisons to observations for no-feedback and feedback implementations of the same model showed that differences in performance between models were larger than the performance changes associated with implementing feedbacks within a given model. However, feedback implementation was shown to result in improved forecasts of meteorological parameters such as the 2 m surface temperature and precipitation. These findings suggest that meteorological forecasts may be improved through the use of fully coupled feedback models, or through incorporation of improved climatologies of aerosol properties, the latter designed to include spatial, temporal and aerosol size and/or speciation variations. © 2014 . Source


Pezzoli A.,University of Turin | Bellasio R.,Enviroware
icSPORTS 2015 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Congress on Sport Sciences Research and Technology Support | Year: 2015

As well known the meteorological and the environmental parameters (as wind, air temperature, rain, humidity, altitude, location, etc...) affect strongly the sport performance. Considering the recent literature on this topic, it is evident how the evaluation of the thermal comfort in the athletes is a crucial subject that has to be studied. In fact the thermal comfort of the athletes is not only linked with the sport performance but also with the safety of the athletes themselves. For these reasons in this research it is presented an innovative methodology to evaluate the thermal comfort of cycling athletes at the next Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games. This analysis is carried out for the Rio de Janeiro area considering the two venues for the cycling sport and for the two disciplines (Time Trial and Road Race). The meteorological data of two stations representative of the racing areas have been collected for a period of 20 years. They have been analyzed to produce the wind roses and to calculate two thermal indices: Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET). The results of this research show the importance of the climatological analysis for optimizing the training and nutrition plans of the athletes. Copyright © 2015 by SCITEPRESS-Science and Technology Publications, Lda. All rights reserved. Source


Pezzoli A.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Cristofori E.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Moncalero M.,Polytechnic University of Turin | Moncalero M.,University of Bologna | And 4 more authors.
Communications in Computer and Information Science | Year: 2015

The effect of weather and environmental conditions on sports has been extensively studied over the last few years. Most of the outdoor sport activities, and in particular endurance sports, are strongly influenced by the variation of meteorological parameters. Notwithstanding the conditions of the outdoor environment are often not considered when evaluating sport performances, as if they were not important, the sport performances are strongly related to the environmental conditions. The aim of this paper is to assess how much atmospheric variables may influence both the athletic performance and the comfort level for different sport disciplines. The analysis of a case study, focused on the cycling sport, shows how the computer supported training can help the Coaches and the Athletes to consider simultaneously the sport performance and the environmental data. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015. Source


Makar P.A.,Environment Canada | Gong W.,Environment Canada | Hogrefe C.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Zhang Y.,North Carolina State University | And 23 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Fully-coupled air-quality models running in "feedback" and "no-feedback" configurations were compared against each other and observation network data as part of Phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative. In the "no-feedback" mode, interactions between meteorology and chemistry through the aerosol direct and indirect effects were disabled, with the models reverting to climatologies of aerosol properties, or a no-aerosol weather simulation, while in the "feedback" mode, the model-generated aerosols were allowed to modify the models' radiative transfer and/or cloud formation processes. Annual simulations with and without feedbacks were conducted for domains in North America for the years 2006 and 2010, and for Europe for the year 2010. Comparisons against observations via annual statistics show model-to-model variation in performance is greater than the within-model variation associated with feedbacks. However, during the summer and during intense emission events such as the Russian forest fires of 2010, feedbacks have a significant impact on the chemical predictions of the models. The aerosol indirect effect was usually found to dominate feedbacks compared to the direct effect. The impacts of direct and indirect effects were often shown to be in competition, for predictions of ozone, particulate matter and other species. Feedbacks were shown to result in local and regional shifts of ozone-forming chemical regime, between NOx- and VOC-limited environments. Feedbacks were shown to have a substantial influence on biogenic hydrocarbon emissions and concentrations: North American simulations incorporating both feedbacks resulted in summer average isoprene concentration decreases of up to 10%, while European direct effect simulations during the Russian forest fire period resulted in grid average isoprene changes of -5 to +12.5%. The atmospheric transport and chemistry of large emitting sources such as plumes from forest fires and large cities were shown to be strongly impacted by the presence or absence of feedback mechanisms in the model simulations. Summertime model performance for ozone and other gases was improved through the inclusion of indirect effect feedbacks, while performance for particulate matter was degraded, suggesting that current parameterizations for in- and below cloud processes, once the cloud locations become more directly influenced by aerosols, may over- or under-predict the strength of these processes. Process parameterization-level comparisons of fully coupled feedback models are therefore recommended for future work, as well as further studies using these models for the simulations of large scale urban/industrial and/or forest fire plumes. © 2014. Source

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