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Weissenbacher N.,University of Vienna | Takacs I.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Murthy S.,District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority | Fuerhacker M.,University of Vienna | Wett B.,University of Innsbruck
Water Environment Research | Year: 2010

The aim of this work was to give a quantitative description of the gaseous nitrogen and carbon emissions of a full-scale deammonification plant (DEMON system). Deammonification accounted for the net carbon sequestration of 0.16 g CO2/g NO2-N. Both nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitric oxide (NO) were minor trace gases (<0.1% nitrogen output). However, in comparison, the nitrous oxide (N2O) emission (1.3% nitrogen output) was significant. The global warming potential of the N2O emissions from the DEMON were similar to those found in conventional simultaneous nitrification/denitrification systems; however, CO2 emissions in the investigated system were significantly lower, thereby lessening the overall environmental effect. This was the first time such an analysis has been performed on a DEMON system.

Rieger L.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology | Rieger L.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Takacs I.,EnviroSim Europe | Siegrist H.,Eawag - Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology
Water Environment Research | Year: 2012

Aeration consumes about 60% of the total energy use of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and therefore is a major contributor to its carbon footprint. Introducing advanced process control can help plants to reduce their carbon footprint and at the same time improve effluent quality through making available unused capacity for denitrification, if the ammonia concentration is below a certain set-point. Monitoring and control concepts are cost-saving alternatives to the extension of reactor volume. However, they also involve the risk of violation of the effluent limits due to measuring errors, unsuitable control concepts or inadequate implementation of the monitoring and control system. Dynamic simulation is a suitable tool to analyze the plant and to design tailored measuring and control systems. During this work, extensive data collection, modeling and fullscale implementation of aeration control algorithms were carried out at three conventional activated sludge plants with fixed pre-denitrification and nitrification reactor zones. Full-scale energy savings in the range of 16-20% could be achieved together with an increase of total nitrogen removal of 40%.

Cao J.-S.,Hohai University | Lin J.-X.,Hohai University | Fang F.,Hohai University | Zhang M.-T.,Hohai University | Hu Z.-R.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014

A novel, low cost and easy regeneration biosorbent, chem-modified walnut shell (MWNS), was studied to investigate its potential for removal of an anionic dye, reactive brilliant red K-2BP. The MWNS was synthesized with epichlorohydrin and diethylenetriamine as etherifying agent and crosslinking agent, respectively, and its characteristics were performed with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, electron dispersive spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. The influences of pH (0.5-11) and adsorbent dosage (0.1-6g/L) on adsorption capacity of MWNS were evaluated. The maximum K-2BP adsorption capacities (Qm) calculated by best fitting model (Langmuir) were 568.18mg/g at 313K, which was almost 10 times than that of raw material. The adsorption kinetic was well confirmed with pseudo-second-order equation. Thermodynamic studies demonstrated adsorption process by MWNS was spontaneous and endothermic. Furthermore, the regeneration capability of MWNS implied MWNS was a cheap, excellent and promising biosorbent for K-2BP removal in azo dye wastewater treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Simsek H.,North Dakota State University | Kasi M.,North Dakota State University | Kasi M.,Moore Engineering Inc. | Wadhawan T.,North Dakota State University | And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) represents a significant portion of nitrogen in the final effluent of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Biodegradable portion of DON (BDON) can support algal growth and/or consume dissolved oxygen in the receiving waters. The fate of DON and BDON has not been studied for trickling filter WWTPs. DON and BDON data were collected along the treatment train of a WWTP with a two-stage trickling filter process. DON concentrations in the influent and effluent were 27% and 14% of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN). The plant removed about 62% and 72% of the influent DON and BDON mainly by the trickling filters. The final effluent BDON values averaged 1.8 mg/L. BDON was found to be between 51% and 69% of the DON in raw wastewater and after various treatment units. The fate of DON and BDON through the two-stage trickling filter treatment plant was modeled. The BioWin v3.1 model was successfully applied to simulate ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, TDN, DON and BDON concentrations along the treatment train. The maximum growth rates for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria, and AOB half saturation constant influenced ammonia and nitrate output results. Hydrolysis and ammonification rates influenced all of the nitrogen species in the model output, including BDON. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Ramdani A.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Dold P.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd | Gadbois A.,John Meunier Inc. | Deleris S.,Pirelli SpA | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

The activated sludge process generates an endogenous residue (X E) as a result of heterotrophic biomass decay (X H). A literature review yielded limited information on the differences between X E and X H in terms of chemical composition and content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The objective of this project was to characterize the chemical composition (x, y, z, a, b and c in C xH yO zN aP bS c) of the endogenous and the active fractions and EPS of activated sludge from well designed experiments. To isolate X H and X E in this study, activated sludge was generated in a 200L pilot-scale aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with a soluble and completely biodegradable synthetic influent of sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. This influent, which contained no influent unbiodegradable organic or inorganic particulate matter, allowed the generation of a sludge composed essentially of two fractions: heterotrophic biomass X H and an endogenous residue X E, the nitrifying biomass being negligible. The endogenous decay rate and the active biomass fraction of the MBR sludge were determined in 21-day aerobic digestion batch tests by monitoring the VSS and OUR responses. Fractions of X H and X E were respectively 68% and 32% in run 1 (MBR at 5.2 day SRT) and 59% and 41% in run 2 (MBR at 10.4 day SRT). The endogenous residue was isolated by subjecting the MBR sludge to prolonged aerobic batch digestion for 3 weeks, and was characterized in terms of (a) elemental analysis for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur; and (b) content of EPS. The MBR sludge was characterized using the same procedures (a and b). Knowing the proportions of X H and X E in this sludge, it was possible to characterize X H by back calculation. Results from this investigation showed that the endogenous residue had a chemical composition different from that of the active biomass with a lower content of inorganic matter (1:4.2), of nitrogen (1:2.9), of phosphorus (1:5.3) and of sulphur (1:3.2) but a similar content of carbon (1:0.98). Based on these elemental analyses, chemical composition formulae for X H and X E were determined as CH 1.240O 0.375N 0.200P 0.0172S 0.0070 and CH 1.248O 0.492N 0.068P 0.0032S 0.0016, respectively. Data from EPS analyses also confirmed this difference in structure between X E and X H with an EPS content of 11-17% in X E versus 26-40% in X H. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hu Z.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Houweling D.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Dold P.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd.
Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States) | Year: 2012

To control eutrophication in receiving water bodies, biological nutrient removal (BNR) of nitrogen and phosphorus has been widely used in wastewater treatment practice, both for the upgrade of existing wastewater treatment facilities and the design of new facilities. However, implementation of BNR activated sludge AS systems presents challenges attributable to the technical complexity of balancing influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) for both biological phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) removal. Sludge age and aerated/unaerated mass fractions are identified as key parameters for process optimization. Other key features of selected BNR process configurations are discussed. Emerging concerns about process sustainability and the reduction of carbon footprint are introducing additional challenges in that influent COD, N, and P are increasingly being seen as resources that should be recovered, not simply removed. Energy recovery through sludge digestion is one way of recovering energy from influent wastewater but which presents a specific challenge for BNR: generation of sidestreams with high nutrient and low COD loads. Technologies designed specifically to treat these side-stream loads are overviewed in this paper. Finally, relatively high levels of nitrous oxide emissions, a powerful greenhouse gas, have been shown to occur in the BNR process under certain conditions, particularly in the presence of high nitrite concentrations. The advantages of using process modeling tools is discussed in view of optimizing BNR processes to meet effluent requirements and to meet goals of sustainability and reducing carbon footprints. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.

Ramdani A.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Dold P.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Deleris S.,Veolia | Lamarre D.,John Meunier Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2010

This study evaluated the potential biodegradability of the endogenous residue in activated sludge subjected to batch digestion under either non-aerated or alternating aerated and non-aerated conditions. Mixed liquor for the tests was generated in a 200 L pilot-scale aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) operated at a 5.2 days SRT. The MBR system was fed a soluble and completely biodegradable synthetic influent composed of sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. This influent, which contained no influent unbiodegradable organic or inorganic materials, allowed to generate sludge composed of essentially two fractions: a heterotrophic biomass XH and an endogenous residue XE, the nitrifying biomass being negligible (less than 2%). The endogenous decay rate and the active biomass fraction of the MBR sludge were determined in 21-day aerobic digestion batch tests by monitoring the VSS and OUR responses. Fractions of XH and XE: 68% and 32% were obtained, respectively, at a 5.2 days SRT. To assess the biodegradability of XE, two batch digestion units operated at 35 °C were run for 90 days using thickened sludge from the MBR system. In the first unit, anaerobic conditions were maintained while in the second unit, alternating aerated and non-aerated conditions were applied. Data for both units showed apparent partial biodegradation of the endogenous residue. Modeling the batch tests indicated endogenous residue decay rates of 0.005 d-1 and 0.012 d-1 for the anaerobic unit and the alternating aerated and non-aerated conditions, respectively. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Hauduc H.,IRSTEA | Hauduc H.,Laval University | Rieger L.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Oehmen A.,New University of Lisbon | And 5 more authors.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering | Year: 2013

This work critically reviews modeling concepts for standard activated sludge wastewater treatment processes (e.g., hydrolysis, growth and decay of organisms, etc.) for some of the most commonly used models. Based on a short overview on the theoretical biochemistry knowledge this review should help model users to better understand (i) the model concepts used; (ii) the differences between models, and (iii) the limits of the models. The seven analyzed models are: (1) ASM1; (2) ASM2d; (3) ASM3; (4) ASM3+BioP; (5) ASM2d+TUD; (6) Barker & Dold model; and (7) UCTPHO+. Nine standard processes are distinguished and discussed in the present work: hydrolysis; fermentation; ordinary heterotrophic organisms (OHO) growth; autotrophic nitrifying organisms (ANO) growth; OHO & ANO decay; poly-hydroxyalkanoates (PHA) storage; polyphosphate (polyP) storage; phosphorus accumulating organisms PAO) growth; and PAO decay. For a structured comparison, a new schematic representation of these processes is proposed. Each process is represented as a reaction with consumed components on the left of the figure and produced components on the right. Standardized icons, based on shapes and color codes, enable the representation of the stoichiometric modeling concepts and kinetics. This representation allows highlighting the conceptual differences of the models, and the level of simplification between the concepts and the theoretical knowledge. The model selection depending on their theoretical limitations and the main research needs to increase the model quality are finally discussed. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Ramdani A.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | Dold P.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Gadbois A.,John Meunier Inc. | Deleris S.,Pirelli SpA | And 2 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2012

The goal of this study was to determine the effect of a long sludge retention time on the biodegradation of the endogenous residue in membrane digestion units receiving a daily feed of sludge and operated under either aerobic or intermittently aerated (22 h off-2 h on) conditions. The mixed liquor for these experiments was generated in a 10.4 day sludge retention time membrane bioreactor fed with a synthetic and completely biodegradable influent with acetate as the sole carbon source. It had uniform characteristics and consisted of only two components, heterotrophic biomass X H and endogenous residue X E. Membrane digestion unit experiments were conducted for 80 days without any sludge wastage except for some sampling. The dynamic behaviour of generation and consumption of filtered organic digestion products was characterized in the membrane digestion unit systems using three pore filter sizes. Results from this investigation indicated that the colloidal matter with size between 0.04 μm and 0.45 μm was shown to contain a recalcitrant fraction possibly composed of polysaccharides bound to proteins which accumulated in the membrane digestion unit under both conditions. Modelling the membrane digestion unit results by considering a first-order decay of the endogenous residue allowed to determine values of the endogenous residue decay rate of 0.0065 and 0.0072 d -1 under fully aerobic and intermittently aerated conditions, respectively. The effect of temperature on the endogenous decay rate was assessed for the intermittently aerated conditions in batch tests using thickened sludge from tests gave an endogenous decay rate constant of 0.0075 d -1 at 20 °C and an Arrhenius temperature correction factor of 1.033. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Rieger L.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Jones R.M.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Dold P.L.,EnviroSim Associates Ltd. | Bott C.B.,Hampton Roads Sanitation District
Water Environment Research | Year: 2014

Aeration control at wastewater treatment plants based on ammonia as the controlled variable is applied for one of two reasons: (1) to reduce aeration costs, or (2) to reduce peaks in effluent ammonia. Aeration limitation has proven to result in significant energy savings, may reduce external carbon addition, and can improve denitrification and biological phosphorus (bio-P) performance. Ammonia control for limiting aeration has been based mainly on feedback control to constrain complete nitrification by maintaining approximately one to two milligrams of nitrogen per liter of ammonia in the effluent. Increased attention has been given to feedforward ammonia control, where aeration control is based on monitoring influent ammonia load. Typically, the intent is to anticipate the impact of sudden load changes, and thereby reduce effluent ammonia peaks. This paper evaluates the fundamentals of ammonia control with a primary focus on feedforward control concepts. A case study discussion is presented that reviews different ammonia-based control approaches. In most instances, feedback control meets the objectives for both aeration limitation and containment of effluent ammonia peaks. Feedforward control, applied specifically for switching aeration on or off in swing zones, can be beneficial when the plant encounters particularly unusual influent disturbances.

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