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Battisti C.,Environmental Service Inc. | Bologna M.A.,Third University of Rome
Rendiconti Lincei | Year: 2012

Habitat fragmentation is a process at landscape scale. This work contributes to reviewing the sensitivity to habitat fragmentation of a set of relatively common and widespread mammal species occurring in central Italy, by comparing evidences from literature to a recently published selection of species obtained by an expert-based method. This comparison allows us to select a set of mammal species that may be considered as targets in the landscape environmental planning and monitoring. For their ecological specialization, trophic level, large home range and other ecological traits, such as the dispersal ability, water-related shrews, forest rodents and mustelids, appear as the more sensitive groups to habitat fragmentation. Considering a sample of 30 species occurring in central Italy, we observed differences between the two approaches (by evidences from literature and an expert-based method), which may be due to incomplete literature or lack of meaningful predictors (bias in selection of ecological traits used in the expert-based procedure). Since in the ecological network planning the selection of fragmentation-sensitive target species is a priority, we suggest further field research, reviews and expert-based approaches on other vertebrates aimed to define sets of species useful to land agencies for monitoring environmental plans at landscape scale. © 2012 Accademia Nazionale dei Lincei.


Battisti C.,Environmental Service Inc. | Franco D.,Planland Organization
Environmental Practice | Year: 2013

Based on long-term fieldwork, we report a descriptive SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis performed by a public agency that manages a protected area (PA) system in a densely populated area (Rome, central Italy) to highlight the core limits in this PA's management effectiveness. The key result of the analysis is that the limits of the management effectiveness and the obstacle in setting improvement strategies can be basically derived from the hierarchical command-and-control government approach and from the adopted management model. The main hindrance to the implementation of a multilevel collaborative management appears to be the institutional stickiness of the managing public agency in shifting from its hierarchical government approach to a governance one. Having observed the presence of operational gaps among the best solutions in the scholarly mainstream, the governing capability of the managing authority, and what happens in the field, we suggest that an answer to aligning these factors could be the creation of more fluid conditions for bottom-up initiatives- for instance, by monitoring the multibenefits of PAs for local communities or by making available to the public the economic evaluation of public goods. Environmental Practice 15:401-408 (2013) © National Association of Environmental Professionals 2013.


Mortelliti A.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Fagiani S.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Battisti C.,Environmental Service Inc. | Capizzi D.,Regional Park Agency | Boitani L.,University of Rome La Sapienza
Diversity and Distributions | Year: 2010

Aim Habitat loss and fragmentation are amongst the greatest threats to biodiversity world-wide. However, there is still little evidence on the relative influence of these two distinct processes on biodiversity, and no study, to date, has investigated the independent contribution of structural connectivity in addition to habitat loss and fragmentation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the independent effects of habitat loss (the decrease in total amount of habitat), habitat fragmentation per se (habitat subdivision) and structural connectivity (in the form of hedgerow networks) on the distribution of seven resident forest-dependent birds in central Italy.Location Central Italy.Methods We strategically selected 30 landscapes (each of 16 km2 in size) with decreasing total amount of forest cover and with contrasting configuration of patches and contrasting lengths of hedgerow networks. Presence/absence of birds in each landscape unit was studied through point counts.Results The amount of forest cover in the landscape had the strongest relative influence on birds' occupancy, whilst habitat subdivision played a negligible role. Structural connectivity and the geographic position of the landscape unit played a relatively important role for four species.Main conclusions Our study shows the importance of disentangling the contribution of different landscape properties in determining distribution patterns. Our results are consistent with the fact that halting habitat loss and carrying out habitat restoration should be conservation priorities, since habitat loss is the main factor affecting the distribution of the target species; implementation of structural connectivity through hedgerows, instead, should be evaluated with caution since its contribution is secondary to the predominant role of habitat loss. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Jiang L.,Environmental Service Inc. | Kogan F.N.,The Center for Satellite Applications and Research | Guo W.,Environmental Service Inc. | Tarpley J.D.,The Center for Satellite Applications and Research | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres | Year: 2010

To provide quality-improved and consistent real-time global green vegetation fraction (GVF) data products that are suitable for use in operational numerical weather, climate, and hydrological models, necessary processing steps are applied to the output data stream from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)-based NOAA operational global vegetation index (GVI) system. This paper reviewed the NOAA GVI data and described the algorithm to derive weekly updated real-time GVF from the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). The methodology description focuses on algorithm justification in an operational production context. The described algorithm was implemented in the global vegetation processing system (GVPS). The new global GVF data sets include the multiyear GVF weekly climatology and the real-time weekly GVF. Compared to the old 5 year GVF monthly climatology currently used in the operational National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/Environmental Modeling Center (EMC) weather and climate models, the new data sets provide an overall higher vegetation value, real-time surface vegetation information, and numerous other improvements. The new GVF data set quality was partially assured by validation against Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI at a few EOS land validation core sites and comparison with another independently processed NDVI data set. Impact of the new GVF data sets in numerical weather prediction (NWP) model was investigated using EMC mesoscale model simulations and concluded overall positive. Copyright 2010 by the American Geophysical Union.


Battisti C.,Environmental Service Inc. | Amori G.,University of Rome La Sapienza | De Felici S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata | Luiselli L.,Environmental Studies Center Demetra S.r.l. | Zapparoli M.,University of Tuscia
Rendiconti Lincei | Year: 2012

The dataset available from the compilation of the atlas of mammals of the Province of Rome was used in order to analyze patterns of road-kill. Western hedgehog (Erinaceus europaeus), coypu (Myocastor coypus), brown rat (Rattus norvegicus), red fox (Vulpes vulpes), and medium-sized mustelids were over-represented in the roadkilled sub-data set. The spatial coverage (=the ratio between the number of occupied cells from a given species and the total atlas sample cells) of road-killed species was statistically higher than the spatial coverage of the nonroad- killed species. Body size of the mammal species did not influence its likelihood of being killed along roads. Our data did corroborate findings by previous research indicating that road-killed species are characterized by peculiar behavioural and ecological traits (e.g., habitat generalists such as red fox and brown rat) or referred to landscape scale for their dynamics and vagility (wideranging landscape mosaic species such as red fox and mustelids). Normalizing data, we also observed a higher road-killing impact on carnivores when compared to herbivores. Atlas dataset, although providing some interesting information on road-kill pattern for studies carried out at a landscape/regional scale, could not be used for a careful analysis of the ecological correlates of road-killing in mammals because of their largely heterogeneous nature. © Springer-Verlag 2012.


Battisti C.,Environmental Service Inc. | Fanelli G.,Orto Botanico dellUniversity Rome
Rendiconti Lincei | Year: 2011

Human-induced disturbances induce heterogeneity at patch and landscape scale, affecting plants and animals differently. In this study, we analyzed the diversity of three oak forest patches (one of them recently coppiced) in Mediterranean Central Italy. Vascular plants were censused on a raster of squares of 10,000 m2. Breeding birds were censused with the point-sampling method. In the three wood patches studied, we observed a clear pattern in diversity with similarities and differences between plants and birds. A mature wood patch (Foglino North) showed the highest total number of species (a measure of γ-diversity at wood patch scale) both for birds and plants but, at level of mean species richness (an averaged measure of α-diversity at sampling point scale), birds showed values significantly different among wood patches with the lowest value in the recently coppiced wood patch (Armellino); on the contrary, the plants did not show differences among patches. In the coppiced wood patch, birds showed the highest value of species turnover among sampling points (a measure of β-diversity at wood patch scale), while plants showed the lowest value. Data suggest that when comparing a coppiced wood patch to a mature wood patch, human-induced heterogeneity developed by coppice management may affect diversity in vascular plants and breeding birds differently at different hierarchical level (i.e., α-, β-, γ-level). This human-induced heterogeneity may decrease the α-diversity values in birds, while it may favor an increase in plants. Moreover, with coppice management, species turnover among sites (a measure of β-diversity) may decrease in plants while may increase in birds. We hypothesize that this different pattern may be due to intrinsic characterization of these two taxa (different number of species, sessile vs. vagile strategies of dispersion, different scales of the assemblages) and to different methods of sampling them. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Battisti C.,Environmental Service Inc. | Luiselli L.,Centro di Studi Ambientali Demetra s.r.l.
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2011

In connectivity conservation and ecological network planning, the selection of focal fragmentation-sensitive species represents a priority step. Nevertheless, despite their strategic role, selection of focal species has traditionally been carried out using charismatic and/or non objective approaches. In this way, actions of planning and conservation could be ineffective. Using as a case study Italian reptiles, we apply an expert-based approach for the selection of focal species on the basis of sensitivity to components of habitat fragmentation (habitat area reduction, increase of habitat isolation, increase of edge effect and landscape matrix disturbance) and of intrinsic ecological traits of the species (trophic level, dispersal ability, body size, niche breadth, rarity). The threshold values for each component of fragmentation defined a set of 21 focal species that can be divided into the three macro-components of human-induced habitat fragmentation (HIHF) towards which they show a sensitivity, the suitable spatial scale of populations and relative suitable habitat categories. Among these species, seven can be sampled easily with standard, low-cost field protocols. The selected species largely coincide with the species known in literature as fragmentation-sensitive. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.


Russell B.A.,Environmental Service Inc.
Marine Technology | Year: 2011

Three of the SNAME's Technical and Research Environmental Engineering Committee (EC) are created to address the pressing environmental performance issues of illegal discharges of oily waste and greenhouse gases. The mission of panel EC-3 is to research and identify the range of problems of shipboard oily wastewater and bilge water management systems by working in partnership with responsible agencies. EC-3 partnered with ASTM to revise and expand The ASM OWS procurement Standard Specification for Shipboard Oil Pollution Abatement System. Panel EC-7 shows that there is a larger need for higher awareness of all maritime environmental management efforts. The initial mission of the panel will be to collect and distribute information about environmental management efforts. EC-11 panel plans to examine black carbon that is estimated to constitute from 5-15% of shipping particulate emissions. The panel will update the technology and operational measures assessment of energy efficiency measures by evaluating manufacturer's costs and energy efficiency improvements.


Trademark
Environmental Service Inc. | Date: 2014-01-15

Cleaning sponges; Soaps; Disinfecting hand sanitizers; Glass cleaners; All purpose cleaners; All purpose disinfectants; Sanitizing wipes.


PubMed | Environmental Service Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene | Year: 2015

Chagas disease is one of the most serious health problems in Latin America. Because the disease is transmitted mainly by triatomine vectors, a three-phase vector control strategy was used to reduce its vector-borne transmission. In Nicaragua, we implemented an indoor insecticide spraying program in five northern departments to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata. The spraying program was performed in two rounds. After each round, we conducted entomological evaluation to compare the vector infestation level before and after spraying. A total of 66,200 and 44,683 houses were sprayed in the first and second spraying rounds, respectively. The entomological evaluation showed that the proportion of houses infested by T. dimidiata was reduced from 17.0% to 3.0% after the first spraying, which was statistically significant (P < 0.0001). However, the second spraying round did not demonstrate clear effectiveness. Space-time analysis revealed that reinfestation of T. dimidiata is more likely to occur in clusters where the pre-spray infestation level is high. Here we discuss how large-scale insecticide spraying is neither effective nor affordable when T. dimidiata is widely distributed at low infestation levels. Further challenges involve research on T. dimidiata reinfestation, diversification of vector control strategies, and implementation of sustainable vector surveillance.

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