Environmental Science Center

Fort Meade, MD, United States

Environmental Science Center

Fort Meade, MD, United States
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Robinson D.A.,UK Center for Ecology and Hydrology | Panagos P.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Borrelli P.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Jones A.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | And 3 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2017

Soils underpin our existence through food production and represent the largest terrestrial carbon store. Understanding soil state-and-change in response to climate and land use change is a major challenge. Our aim is to bridge the science-policy interface by developing a natural capital accounting structure for soil, for example, attempting a mass balance between soil erosion and production, which indicates that barren land, and woody crop areas are most vulnerable to potential soil loss. We test out our approach using earth observation, modelling and ground based sample data from the European Union's Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey (LUCAS) soil monitoring program. Using land cover change data for 2000-2012 we are able to identify land covers susceptible to change, and the soil resources most at risk. Tree covered soils are associated with the highest carbon stocks, and are on the increase, while areas of arable crops are declining, but artificial surfaces are increasing. The framework developed offers a substantial step forward, demonstrating the development of biophysical soil accounts that can be used in wider socio-economic and policy assessment; initiating the development of an integrated soil monitoring approach called for by the United Nations Intergovernmental Technical Panel on Soils. © 2017 The Author(s).

Masson S.,Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | Marchioli R.,Laboratory of Clinical Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Disease | Mozaffarian D.,Brigham and Women's Hospital | Bernasconi R.,Instituto Of Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri | And 12 more authors.
American Heart Journal | Year: 2013

Treatment with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can improve clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF). Circulating levels of n-3 PUFA, an objective estimation of exposure, have never been measured in a large cohort of patients with HF. Methods: We measured n-3 PUFA in plasma phospholipids at baseline and after 3 months in 1,203 patients with chronic HF enrolled in the GISSI-Heart Failure trial and randomized to n-3 PUFA 1 g/daily or placebo. N-3 PUFA levels were related to clinical characteristics, pharmacologic treatments, dietary habits, circulating biomarkers, and mortality. Results: Baseline n-3 PUFA (5.1 ± 1.8 mol%) was associated with dietary fish intake, with an average difference of 43% between patients with the lowest and highest consumptions (P <.0001). Baseline eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) but not docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) was inversely related to C-reactive protein, pentraxin-3, adiponectin, natriuretic peptide, and troponin levels. Three-month treatment with n-3 PUFA raised their levels by 43%, independently of dietary fish consumption; increases in EPA levels were associated with decreased pentraxin-3. Low baseline levels of EPA but not DHA were no longer related to higher mortality after the addition of circulating biomarkers to multivariable models. Conclusion: Before supplementation, circulating n-3 PUFA levels in patients with chronic HF mainly depend on dietary fish consumption and are inversely related to inflammatory markers and disease severity. Three-month treatment with n-3 PUFA markedly enriched circulating EPA and DHA, independently of fish intake, and lowered pentraxin-3. Low EPA levels are inversely related to total mortality in patients with chronic HF. © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

Wildenborg T.,TNO | Chadwick A.,Environmental Science Center | Deflandre J.-P.,French Institute of Petroleum | Eiken O.,Statoil | And 4 more authors.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2013

An extensive programme of modelling, monitoring and verification activities was deployed at a set of active storage sites worldwide including Sleipner, In Salah, Ketzin, Weyburn, K12-B and Snøhvit (EU CO2ReMoVe project). All investigated storage sites were well managed and did not have a negative impact on humans or the environment. Time-lapse seismic and pressure monitoring are key in verifying the deep subsurface performance of the storage sites. Evidence gathered during the site characterisation and operational phases is key to handover responsibility of the storage site to governmental authorities after injection has definitely ceased, which is the focus of the follow-up EU project CO2CARE.

Howard P.H.,Environmental Science Center | Muir D.C.G.,Environment Canada
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010

The goal of this study was to identify commercial chemicals that might be persistent and bioaccumulative (P&B) and that were not being considered in current Great Lakes, North American, and Arctic contaminant measurement programs. We combined the Canadian Domestic Substance List (DSL), a list of 3059 substances of "unknown orvariable composition complex reaction products and biological materials" (UVCBs), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Inventory Update Rule (IUR) database for years 1986,1990,1994,1998, 2002, and 2006 yielding a database of 22263 commercial chemicals. From that list, 610 chemicals were identified by estimates from U.S EPAEPISuite software and using expert judgment. This study has yielded some interesting and probable P&B chemicals that should be considered for further study. Recent studies, following up our initial reports and presentations on this work, have confirmed the presence of many of these chemicals in the environment © 2010 American Chemical Society.

Sasso G.L.,University of Bari | Celli N.,Environmental science Center | Caboni M.,University of Bari | Murzilli S.,University of Bari | And 8 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2010

Cholesterol homeostasis is critical for cellular proliferation. Liver X receptor (LXR) and are the nuclear receptors responsible for regulation of cholesterol metabolism. In physiological conditions, high intracellular cholesterol levels cause increased synthesis of oxysterols, which activate LXR, thus triggering a transcriptional response for cholesterol secretion and catabolism. Here we employed a mouse model of partial hepatectomy (PH) to dissect the molecular pathways connecting cholesterol homeostasis, cellular proliferation, and LXR. First, we show that hepatic cholesterol content increases after PH, whereas the entire LXR transcriptome is down-regulated. Although LXRmessenger RNA (mRNA) levels are unmodified, LXR target genes are significantly down-regulated on day 1 after PH and restored to control levels on day 7, when the liver reaches normal size. The inactivation of LXR following PH is related to the reduced oxysterol availability by way of decreased synthesis, and increased sulfation and secretion. On the contrary, cholesterol synthesis is up-regulated, and extracellular matrix remodeling is enhanced. Second, we show that reactivation of LXR by way of a synthetic ligand determines a negative modulation of hepatocyte proliferation. This effect is sustained by the reactivation of hepatic cholesterol catabolic and secretory pathways, coupled with a significant reduction of cholesterol biosynthesis. Our data unveil a previously unrecognized and apparently paradoxical scenario of LXR modulation. During liver regeneration LXR activity is abated in spite of increasing intracellular cholesterol levels. Turning off LXR-transcriptional pathways is crucial to guaranteeing the requisite intracellular cholesterol levels of regenerating hepatocytes. In line with this hypothesis, pharmacological LXR reactivation during PH significantly reduces liver regeneration capacity. Copyright © 2010 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

Goodenough K.M.,British Geological Survey | Lusty P.A.J.,British Geological Survey | Roberts N.M.W.,Environmental Science Center | Key R.M.,British Geological Survey | Garba A.,Nigerian Geological Survey Agency
Lithos | Year: 2014

The Minna area of western Nigeria lies within a Pan-African orogenic belt that extends along the margin of the West African Craton, from Algeria southwards through Nigeria, Benin and Ghana, and into the Borborema Province of Brazil. This belt is characterised by voluminous post-collisional granitoid plutons that are well exposed around the city of Minna. In this paper we present new information about their age and petrogenesis. The Pan-African plutons around Minna can be divided into two main groups: a group of largely peraluminous biotite-muscovite granites that show varying levels of deformation in late Pan-African shear zones; and a younger group of relatively undeformed, predominantly metaluminous hornblende granitoids. Pegmatites, including both barren and rare-metal types, occur at the margins of some of the plutons. New U-Pb zircon dating presented here, in combination with published data, indicates an early phase of magmatism at c. 790-760. Ma in the Minna area. This magmatism could be related either to continental rifting, or to subduction around the margins of an existing continent. The peraluminous biotite-muscovite granites were intruded at c. 650-600. Ma during regional shearing in the orogenic belt, and are likely to have formed largely by crustal melting. Subsequent emplacement of metaluminous granitoids at c. 590. Ma indicates the onset of post-orogenic extension in this area, with a contribution from mantle-derived magmas. The rare-metal pegmatites represent the youngest intrusions in this area and thus are likely to have formed in a separate magmatic episode, post-dating granite intrusion. © 2014.

Tomasino S.F.,Environmental Science Center | Rastogi V.K.,U.S. Army | Wallace L.,U.S. Army | Smith L.S.,U.S. Army | And 2 more authors.
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2010

The quantitative Three-Step Method (TSM) for testing the efficacy of liquid sporicides against spores of Bacillus subtilis on a hard, nonporous surface (glass) was adopted as AOAC Official MethodSM 2008.05 in May 2008. The TSM uses 5×5 × 1 mm coupons (carriers) upon which spores have been inoculated and which are introduced into liquid sporicidal agent contained in a microcentrifuge tube. Following exposure of inoculated carriers and neutralization, spores are removed from carriers in three fractions (gentle washing, fraction A; sonication, fraction B; and gentle agitation, fraction C). Liquid from each fraction is serially diluted and plated on a recovery medium for spore enumeration. The counts are summed over the three fractions to provide the density (viable spores per carrier), which is logio-transformed to arrive at the log density. The log reduction is calculated by subtracting the mean log density for treated carriers from the mean log density for control carriers. This paper presents a single-laboratory investigation conducted to evaluate the applicability of using two porous carrier materials (ceramic tile and untreated pine wood) and one alternative nonporous material (stainless steel). Glass carriers were included in.

Karatayev A.Y.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Burlakova L.E.,State University of New York at Buffalo | Miller T.D.,Environmental Science Center | Perrelli M.F.,State University of New York at Buffalo
Hydrobiologia | Year: 2015

Although freshwater molluscs in the order Unionoida are considered one of the most endangered groups of animals in the world, sufficient data on their status are lacking for most species. As a result, a species may become rare, endangered, and even extinct before the first population assessment is conducted. This is especially true for endemic species, particularly those limited to remote regions with difficult access. We studied the current distribution and population densities of Popenaias popeii endemic to the Rio Grande drainage in Texas, and developed a method to evaluate changes in the population’s size and distributional range over the last 100 years. Sampling over 250 sites in four rivers that constitute the entire historical range of P. popeii in Texas, we found that this species has likely been extirpated from two rivers. The total length of the rivers populated by this mussel has declined by 75%, and the total P. popeii population size has declined by 72%. The remaining population of this species in the Rio Grande is fragmented, with only one 190-km stretch still supporting high densities. The developed approach could be used for other rare freshwater molluscs to reconstruct their historical range and population size. © 2015 Springer International Publishing Switzerland

Karatayev A.Y.,Buffalo State College | Miller T.D.,Environmental Science Center | Burlakova L.E.,Buffalo State College
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems | Year: 2012

According to the World Wildlife Fund, the Rio Grande is the most endangered river system in the North American continent and one of the World's top 10 rivers at risk, but is globally important for freshwater biodiversity. Unionid bivalves of the Rio Grande river basin used to be represented by a unique assemblage, including four endemic species (Truncilla cognata, Potamilis metnecktayi, Popenaias popeii, and Quadrula couchiana); however, surveys from 1998-2001 failed to recover any live endemic unionid species suggesting a sharp decrease in their populations and potential of extinction. Intensive surveys (162 sites sampled) conducted by the authors from 2001-2011 on the Rio Grande and its tributaries in Texas recovered live T. cognata, P. metnecktayi, and the largest population of P. popeii ever reported. Overall the unionid assemblage of the Rio Grande basin has changed considerably during the last century. Decline in species diversity, range fragmentation, local extirpations, and introduction of widespread common species were documented. Two species (Q. couchiana and Quincuncina mitchelli) are locally extinct. Potamilus metnecktayi and T. cognata have been extirpated from the Pecos River and their ranges in the Rio Grande have been reduced. Popenaias popeii has been extirpated from the Pecos River and Las Moras Creek along with the reduction and fragmentation of its range in the Devils River and Rio Grande. Among the environmental factors responsible for the degradation of unionid assemblages in the Rio Grande river basin, the most important are impoundments, habitat degradation, salinization, pollution, and over-extraction of water. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tomasino S.F.,Environmental Science Center | Pines R.M.,Environmental Science Center | Hamilton G.C.,Big Sky Statistical Analysts
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2012

The AOAC Use-Dilution Methods, 955.15 (Staphylococcus aureus) and 964.02 (Pseudomonas aeruginosa), were revised in 2009 to include a standardized procedure to measure the log density of the test microbe and to establish a minimum mean log density value of 6.0 (geometric mean of 1.0 × 10 6 CFU/carrier) to qualify the test results. This report proposes setting a maximum mean log density value of 7.0 (geometric mean of 1.0 × 107 CFU/carrier) to further standardize the procedure. The minimum value was based on carrier count data collected by four laboratories over an 8-year period (1999-2006). The data have been updated to include an additional 4 years' worth of data (2006-2010) collected by the same laboratories. A total of 512 tests were conducted on products bearing claims against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus with and without an organic soil load (OSL) added to the inoculum (as specified on the product label claim). Six carriers were assayed in each test, for a total of 3072 carriers. Mean log densities for each of the 512 tests were at least 6.0. With the exception of two tests, one for P. aeruginosa without OSL and one for S. aureus with OSL, the mean log densities did not exceed 7.5 (geometric mean of 3.2 × 107 CFU/carrier). Across microbes and OSL treatments, the mean log density (±SEM) was 6.80 (±0.07) per carrier (a geometric mean of 6.32 × 106 CFU/carrier) and acceptable repeatability (0.28) and reproducibility (0.31) SDs were exhibited. A maximum mean log density per carrier of 7.0 is being proposed here as a validity requirement for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. A modification to the method to allow for dilution of the final test cultures to achieve carrier counts within 6.0-7.0 logs is also being proposed. Establishing a range of 6.0-7.0 logs will help improve the reliability of the method and should allow for more consistent results within and among laboratories. © 2012 Publishing Technology.

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