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St Louis, MO, United States

Deb A.K.,Environmental Operations | Haque C.E.,University of Manitoba
Sustainability | Year: 2011

Due to its deltaic geographical position and precarious socioeconomic and demographic conditions, Bangladesh is recognized worldwide for its exposure to recurring environmental hazards. Based on a 21-month long field study in two fishing villages that are characterized by distinct ecological settings and ethnic groups, this article examines the arrays of cross-scale environmental, social and institutional stressors that singly or cumulatively impact fishers' livelihood well-being and generational poverty. Analysis of the vulnerabilities makes it clear that the degree to which poor fishers suffer from environmental stressors and calamities is determined not only by the frequency of abnormal events, but also by their internal capabilities of self-protection, resilience against those stressors, position in the social network and asset and resource ownership. Coastal and floodplain fishers identified cyclone and long-standing floods as strong drivers of poverty as their bundles of 'safety net' capital are usually disrupted or lost. For a majority of the fishers, income/day/family declines to as low as US$ 0.7-0.9. Fishers lack appropriate sets of endowments and entitlements that would allow them immediate buffer against livelihood stressors. Vulnerability here is intricately related to one's socio-economic status; poor and 'socially vulnerable' ethnic fishers are concurrently 'biologically vulnerable' too. The corollary of multi-faceted stressors is that, poverty persists as an ever-increasing haunting presence that thousands of floodplain and coastal fishers of Bangladesh are forced to cope with. It is evident that nature-induced stressors exert 'ratchet effects' on fishers with low endowments who critically risk nutritional deprivation and social standing. Lucidly, most of the fishers are trapped in a form of 'livelihood war'. © 2011 by the authors. Source


Russell D.L.,Environmental Operations
Problemy Ekorozwoju | Year: 2010

This is a different approach to the subject of sustainability which suggests: 1) that certain activities are inherently unsustainable; 2) that sustainability be defined with regard to a basic level of technology, economy, and demand; 3) that sustainability can be better managed by looking at the energy and waste and consumption from manufacturing, and treating the technologies as "black boxes"; 4) the environmental permit data from manufacturing concerns needs to be made more public because the effect of the publication of that information will enhance pollution reduction; 5) that we need to define pollution receptors and assign the costs to develop trans-boundary solutions; and 6) that there is a lot of fruitful work still to be performed on developing very good estimates of the capacity of agricultural, non-agricultural, and oceanic receptors. Source


Iida Y.,Environmental Operations
NEC Technical Journal | Year: 2011

Next year 2012, is the 20th anniversary of the 1st Earth Summit that was held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The international mechanisms for conserving the Earth proposed there, such as the reduction of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions and the conservation of biodiversity have tended to diversify the range of commercial activity. The future calls not for measures that are confined exclusively to an enterprise, region or nation, but for those that are applicable on a global scale. With such measures, the fundamentals can be summarized into the three layers of "observation," "analysis" and "proposal and execution of the actual measures." M2M can act as a platform for processing these three layers within the framework of the ICT (Information and communications technology) infrastructures. This paper discusses the new values that will be added in the automation and integration of global-scale "observations" and "analyses" by combining the extensive spatial sensor technology owned by NEC with the M2M technologies. Source


Kirkman R.,Environmental Operations
Proceedings of Institution of Civil Engineers: Energy | Year: 2010

This paper provides output data for the first year of operation of the new Sheffield energy recovery facility. It should be of interest to the energy provision community as a whole, but particularly to those promoting, planning, designing, constructing or operating a renewable electricity and heat energy facility utilising non-recyclable, kerbside-collected, municipal solid waste as fuel. An overview of the location of the facility and the extent of the associated district energy network is provided. Details of the fuel, energy output, emissions and operating data are given. Source


Stark T.D.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Miller J.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign | Fought S.,Environmental Operations
Geosynthetics | Year: 2013

Pennsylvania's Department of Env ironmental Protection (DEP) and Department of Community and Economic Dev elopment (DCED) officials hav e welcomed the recent emersion of companies that collect and reprocess geomembranes used in v arious aspects of Marcellus Shale oil and gas drilling, dev elopment, and production. Source

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