San Jose, CA, United States
San Jose, CA, United States

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Barry T.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Oriel M.,Health and Safety Branch | Verder-Carlos M.,Health and Safety Branch | Mehler L.,Health and Safety Branch | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agromedicine | Year: 2010

Objectives. To evaluate illnesses resulting from community exposure to chloropicrin on October 5, 2005, in the agricultural community of Salinas, California. Methods. A cross-sectional interview survey was conducted of 142 households downwind from the application site in neighborhoods that were sources of emergency calls. A total of 439 residents of the 142 households in affected neighborhoods and 1 emergency responder were interviewed. The authors assessed exposure to chloropicrin resulting from the application using a public domain air pollution dispersion model, the Industrial Source Complex 3 (ISC3). Results. A total of 440 subjects were represented in the interviews, including 324 (73.6%) who reported symptoms possibly or probably related to chloropicrin exposure. Ocular symptoms were present in 302 (93.2%) of the symptomatic cases. Nonocular (usually systemic or respiratory) symptoms occurred in 170 cases (52.5%), but occurred significantly more frequently in residents who lived within 0.46 miles of the application site. Air-modeling showed a plume of chloropicrin in the affected neighborhoods, with estimated 1-h TWA (time-weighted average) air concentrations between 0.15 and 0.025 ppm. Conclusions. Ocular, respiratory, and systemic symptoms on the evening of October 5, 2005, corresponded to a plume of chloropicrin, with estimated concentrations as high as 0.15 ppm, in the community of Salinas, California. Cases occurred between 0.36 and 2.89 miles from the application site. Use of irritant agricultural fumigants near residential neighborhoods can produce a risk of illness for distances more than 2 miles from the site of application. Air modeling is useful for evaluating the relationship between possible exposures and community symptoms. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Zhang X.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Starner K.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Spurlock F.,Environmental Monitoring Branch
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Chlorpyrifos is a common surface water contaminant in California, USA. We evaluated five years of chlorpyrifos use and surface water monitoring data in California's principal agricultural regions. Imperial County and three central coastal regions accounted for only 10 % of chlorpyrifos statewide use, but displayed consistently high aquatic benchmark exceedances (13.2 %-57.1 %). In contrast, 90 % of use occurred in Central Valley regions where only 0.6 %-6.5 % of samples exceeded aquatic benchmarks. Differences among regions are attributable to crop type, use intensity, irrigation practices and monthly application patterns. Application method did not appear to be a factor. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012.


Zhang X.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Starner K.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Goh K.S.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Gill S.,Environmental Monitoring Branch
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

For five agricultural regions in California, USA, detection frequency of diazinon in surface water and several aspects of its use were determined from recent data (2005-2010): application method, product formulation and primary crops. Diazinon detection frequencies ranged from 10% to 91%. Application method and product formulations used were similar in all regions. The primary crops treated varied from lettuce (77%) in the regions with highest detections frequencies to tree crops (53%) in those with the lowest. The results suggest that the variation in diazinon detection frequencies likely was not due to the application method or formulation type. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).


Starner K.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Goh K.S.,Environmental Monitoring Branch
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2012

Seventy-five surface water samples were collected from three agricultural regions of California and analyzed for the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid. Samples were collected during California's relatively dry-weather irrigation seasons in 2010 and 2011. Imidacloprid was detected in 67 samples (89%); concentrations exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agency's chronic invertebrate Aquatic Life Benchmark of 1.05 μg/L in 14 samples (19%). Concentrations were also frequently greater than similar toxicity guidelines developed for use in Europe and Canada. The results indicate that imidacloprid commonly moves offsite and contaminates surface waters at concentrations that could harm aquatic organisms following use under irrigated agriculture conditions in California. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Tao J.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Barry T.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Segawa R.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Neal R.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Tuli A.,Environmental Monitoring Branch
Journal of Environmental Quality | Year: 2013

Kettleman City, California, reported a higher than expected number of birth defect cases between 2007 and 2010, raising the concern of community and government agencies. A pesticide exposure evaluation was conducted as part of a complete assessment of community chemical exposure. Nineteen pesticides that potentially cause birth defects were investigated. The Industrial Source Complex Short-Term Model Version 3 (ISCST3) was used to estimate off-site air concentrations associated with pesticide applications within 8 km of the community from late 2006 to 2009. The health screening levels were designed to indicate potential healThe ffects and used for preliminary healThe valuations of estimated air concentrations. A tiered approach was conducted. The first tier modeled simple, hypothetical worst-case situations for each of 19 pesticides. The second tier modeled specific applications of the pesticides wiThe stimated concentrations exceeding health screening levels in the first tier. The pesticide use report database of the California Department of Pesticide Regulation provided application information. Weather input data were summarized from the measurements of a local weather station in the California Irrigation Management Information System. The ISCST3 modeling results showed that during the target period, only two application days of one pesticide (methyl isothiocyanate) produced air concentration estimates above the health screening level for developmental effects at the boundary of Kettleman City. The se results suggest that the likelihood of birth defects caused by pesticide exposure was low. © American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America.


Starner K.,Environmental Monitoring Branch | Goh K.S.,Environmental Monitoring Branch
Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Due to frequent contamination of streams in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, with the insecticide chlorpyrifos, researchers are working to identify crop-specific management practices that will reduce the offsite movement of this compound into surface waters. To guide this effort, crops treated with chlorpyrifos in the vicinity of contaminated streams were identified; walnut, alfalfa, and almond were the primary crops identified. Use was higher on walnut and almond, but due to irrigation practices offsite movement in surface runoff may be more likely from alfalfa. Based on these findings, development of management practices to reduce off-site movement of chlorpyrifos in irrigation runoff from treated alfalfa fields is recommended. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Environmental Monitoring Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of agromedicine | Year: 2010

To evaluate illnesses resulting from community exposure to chloropicrin on October 5, 2005, in the agricultural community of Salinas, California.A cross-sectional interview survey was conducted of 142 households downwind from the application site in neighborhoods that were sources of emergency calls. A total of 439 residents of the 142 households in affected neighborhoods and 1 emergency responder were interviewed. The authors assessed exposure to chloropicrin resulting from the application using a public domain air pollution dispersion model, the Industrial Source Complex 3 (ISC3).A total of 440 subjects were represented in the interviews, including 324 (73.6%) who reported symptoms possibly or probably related to chloropicrin exposure. Ocular symptoms were present in 302 (93.2%) of the symptomatic cases. Nonocular (usually systemic or respiratory) symptoms occurred in 170 cases (52.5%), but occurred significantly more frequently in residents who lived within 0.46 miles of the application site. Air-modeling showed a plume of chloropicrin in the affected neighborhoods, with estimated 1-h TWA (time-weighted average) air concentrations between 0.15 and 0.025 ppm.Ocular, respiratory, and systemic symptoms on the evening of October 5, 2005, corresponded to a plume of chloropicrin, with estimated concentrations as high as 0.15 ppm, in the community of Salinas, California. Cases occurred between 0.36 and 2.89 miles from the application site. Use of irritant agricultural fumigants near residential neighborhoods can produce a risk of illness for distances more than 2 miles from the site of application. Air modeling is useful for evaluating the relationship between possible exposures and community symptoms.


PubMed | Environmental Monitoring Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2012

Seventy-five surface water samples were collected from three agricultural regions of California and analyzed for the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid. Samples were collected during Californias relatively dry-weather irrigation seasons in 2010 and 2011. Imidacloprid was detected in 67 samples (89%); concentrations exceeded the United States Environmental Protection Agencys chronic invertebrate Aquatic Life Benchmark of 1.05 g/L in 14 samples (19%). Concentrations were also frequently greater than similar toxicity guidelines developed for use in Europe and Canada. The results indicate that imidacloprid commonly moves offsite and contaminates surface waters at concentrations that could harm aquatic organisms following use under irrigated agriculture conditions in California.


PubMed | Environmental Monitoring Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2012

Chlorpyrifos is a common surface water contaminant in California, USA. We evaluated five years of chlorpyrifos use and surface water monitoring data in Californias principal agricultural regions. Imperial County and three central coastal regions accounted for only 10% of chlorpyrifos statewide use, but displayed consistently high aquatic benchmark exceedances (13.2%-57.1%). In contrast, 90% of use occurred in Central Valley regions where only 0.6%-6.5% of samples exceeded aquatic benchmarks. Differences among regions are attributable to crop type, use intensity, irrigation practices and monthly application patterns. Application method did not appear to be a factor.


PubMed | Environmental Monitoring Branch
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology | Year: 2013

Due to frequent contamination of streams in the San Joaquin Valley, California, USA, with the insecticide chlorpyrifos, researchers are working to identify crop-specific management practices that will reduce the offsite movement of this compound into surface waters. To guide this effort, crops treated with chlorpyrifos in the vicinity of contaminated streams were identified; walnut, alfalfa, and almond were the primary crops identified. Use was higher on walnut and almond, but due to irrigation practices offsite movement in surface runoff may be more likely from alfalfa. Based on these findings, development of management practices to reduce off-site movement of chlorpyrifos in irrigation runoff from treated alfalfa fields is recommended.

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