Cikankowitz A.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Laforest V.,Ecole Nationale Superieure des Mines de Saint - Etienne CMP
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2013
The European Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control (IPPC) directive compels the more polluting industries to apply Best Available Techniques (BAT) in order to reach an adequate level of environmental protection. In Europe, despite the difficulty of implementing the IPPC directive, there is nowadays an increasing endeavour to develop methodologies for quantitative integrated assessments of pollution, improve the understanding and application of BAT at the installation stage and facilitate their selection for European Reference Documents. The methodology proposed in this article aims at helping stakeholders (industrialists, authorities) deal with the update of their exploitation licence (i.e. in this case, the French technical report). Taking into account the local context of the studied companies, the methodology focuses on the evaluation of existing BAT techniques and provides a general framework for the assessment of production units and management processes. The methodology is carried out as a four-step procedure involving an environmental and risk performance assessment tool and an evaluation grid for the production unit. Each production unit is rated through an evaluation grid made of six levels of compliance with the performance of BAT. The aggregation of these marks allows the comparison to the IPPC objectives. Finally, the applicability of this qualitative assessment has been validated through several metal finishing facilities. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Treguer R.,Veolia |
Tatin R.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Couvert A.,National Graduate School of Chemistry, Rennes |
Couvert A.,European University of Brittany |
And 3 more authors.
Water Research | Year: 2010
More stringent legislation on dissolved organic matter (DOM) urges the drinking water industry to improve in DOM removal, especially when applied to water with high dissolved organic carbon (DOC) contents and low turbidity. To improve conventional processes currently used in drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs), the performances of a hybrid membrane bioreactor containing fluidised activated carbon were investigated at the DWTP of Rennes. Preliminary results showed that the residual DOC was the major part of the non-biodegradable fraction. In order to increase the global efficiency, an upstream oxidation step was added to the process. Ozone was chosen to break large molecules and increase their biodegradability. The first step consisted of carrying out lab-scale experiments in order to optimise the necessary ozone dose by measuring the process yield, in terms of biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). Secondly, activated carbon adsorption of the DOC present in ozonated water was quantified. The whole process was tested in a pilot unit under field conditions at the DWTP of Rennes (France). Lab-scale experiments confirmed that ozonation increases the BDOC fraction, reduces the aromaticity of the DOC and produces small size organic compounds. Adsorption tests led to the conclusion that activated carbon unexpectedly removes BDOC first. Finally, the pilot unit results revealed an additional BDOC removal (from 0.10 to 0.15 mg L-1) of dissolved organic carbon from the raw water considered. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chen A.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Golparvar-Fard M.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign |
Kleiner B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Computing in Civil Engineering - Proceedings of the 2013 ASCE International Workshop on Computing in Civil Engineering | Year: 2013
One of the most challenging aspects of safety for construction sites is ensuring that workers can predict, identify, and respond to potential hazardous conditions before they are exposed. From a scientific standpoint, we currently lack the knowledge of discovering the most efficient training styles for safety and also understanding why and how these styles of training can influence the post-training activities. To address these needs, a System for Augmented Virtuality Environment Safety (SAVES) is designed and presented in this paper. SAVES, which integrates a BIM with 2D images on a jobsite, allows trainees to conduct a set of interactions with SAVES and accomplish multiple instruction-based and task-based training modules. These modules include detection of ten types of hazard and/or energy sources at three levels of severity. The complete process of design, development and implementation of SAVES is demonstrated and the lessons learned are discussed in detail. © 2013 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Ricordel C.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Darchen A.,CNRS Chemistry Institute of Rennes |
Hadjiev D.,University of Southern Brittany
Separation and Purification Technology | Year: 2010
Water is a natural product that is needed in many industrial uses, but some processes like washing or cooling do not require drinking water. In this work we investigated the efficiency of an electrolytic treatment of surface waters in order to increase their quality. The waters were taken from a river and in a pond and they were treated by electrocoagulation-electroflotation with an aluminum soluble anode. Vital nutriments for the bacteria development were consumed during the electrolysis. This treatment led to great decreases of molecular oxygen, phosphate and nitrate anions and dissolved organic compounds. Each of these decreases may explain the disinfection effect that was observed for the total flora. Moreover, the X-ray diffraction of the electro-generated solid showed the presence of nanocrystallites that could be involved in a bactericidal effect. After the electrocoagulation-electroflotation treatment, the investigated waters exhibited an increased quality for a cooling use. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wu J.-P.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Wu J.-P.,Tsinghua University |
Guan Y.-T.,Tsinghua University |
Zhang Y.,CAS Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry |
And 4 more authors.
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2010
Several currently used non-polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) brominated flame retardants (BFRs), including hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), 1,2-bis(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE), hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), and pentabromotoluene (PBT), are examined in the components of a freshwater food web from an electronic waste recycling site, South China. All these BFRs are detectable in the food web, with average concentrations of 13.9-868, 1.71-518, < 3.8-338, 197-3099, 3.98-25.6, and 1.20-3.60 ng/g lipid wt for HBCDs, BTBPE, DBDPE, HBB, PBEB, and PBT, respectively. Food web magnification is observed for (+)-α-, (-)-α-, (±)-α-, and total HBCDs, and HBB, with trophic magnification factors (TMFs) of 2.22, 2.18, 2.19, 1.82, and 1.46, respectively; whereas there is trophic dilution of BTBPE and PBT through the food web. The TMFs for (+)-α-, (-)-α-, and (±)-α-HBCDs are comparable to those of PBDEs detected previously in the same food web. Biota samples show a shift from γ- toward α-HBCD compared with the suspended particles, sediment, and HBCD technical mixtures, with a significant increase of α-HBCD on ascending trophic levels. Except for α-HBCD in suspended particles and sediment, all the HBCD enantiomers detected are nonracemic in the environmental matrix. In biota, nonracemic residues of α-HBCD were observed in mud carp and crucian carp; β-HBCD in prawn, mud carp, and crucian carp; and γ-HBCD in water snake, with preferences for (+)-α-, (-)-β-, and (+)-γ-HBCDs. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Van Den Hende S.,Ghent University |
Beelen V.,Ghent University |
Bore G.,Ghent University |
Bore G.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
And 2 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014
Sequencing batch reactors with microalgal bacterial flocs (MaB-floc SBRs) are a novel approach for photosynthetic aerated wastewater treatment based on bioflocculation. To assess their technical potential for aquaculture wastewater treatment in Northwest Europe, MaB-floc SBRs were up-scaled from indoor photobioreactors of 4L over 40 and 400L to a 12m3 outdoor raceway pond. Scale-up decreased the nutrient removal efficiencies with a factor 1-3 and the volumetric biomass productivities with a factor 10-13. Effluents met current discharge norms, except for nitrite and nitrate. Flue gas sparging was needed to decrease the effluent pH. Outdoor MaB-flocs showed enhanced settling properties and an increased ash and chlorophyll a content. Bioflocculation enabled successful harvesting by gravity settling and dewatering by filtering at 150-250μm. Optimisation of nitrogen removal and biomass valorisation are future challenges towards industrial implementation of MaB-floc SBRs for aquaculture wastewater treatment. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Torok M.M.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
Fard M.G.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Kochersberger K.B.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University
Congress on Computing in Civil Engineering, Proceedings | Year: 2012
Natural disasters can compromise the structural integrity of buildings. Three dimensional post-disaster building models, created using image-based 3D reconstruction techniques, would help early responders assess the extent of the damage. Image-based 3D reconstructions are advantageous as they only require a camera and tens of pictures to create a 3D mesh model. Under some circumstances responders can collect these images; however, if a building is suspected to have sustained significant damage, it may be neither safe nor straightforward to examine its structural integrity. Therefore, an approach is needed which allows responders to remain away from compromised buildings while gathering images for a 3D model. We propose the use of a small ground robot to take pictures of building elements remotely. Once the images are collected, an element model is created using a pipeline of Structure from Motion, dense reconstruction, and surface modeling. This model is compared to a pre-existing CAD model or examined to assess the likelihood of any structural damage. We also demonstrate a new automatic 3D crack-detection algorithm to assist examiners in identifying structural defects. Our preliminary results show that this process can successfully identify numerous cracks in the 3D reconstruction of a sample concrete column. The perceived benefits of the proposed method in a post-disaster situation are also discussed in detail. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.
Van Den Hende S.,Ghent University |
Carre E.,Ghent University |
Carre E.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Cocaud E.,Ghent University |
And 4 more authors.
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2014
Microalgal bacterial flocs in sequencing batch reactors (MaB-floc SBRs) represent a novel approach to wastewater treatment. In this approach, mechanical aeration is replaced by photosynthetic aeration and MaB-floc settling separates the treated wastewater from the produced biomass. However, its technical potential for industrial wastewaters needs to be shown. Therefore, wastewaters of aquaculture, manure treatment, food-processing and chemical industry were treated in MaB-floc SBRs. This treatment resulted in significantly different nutrient removal rates and effluent qualities among wastewaters. A high MaB-floc production was obtained for all wastewaters, ranging from 0.14 to 0.26g total suspended solids Lreactor -1day-1. A major advantage of MaB-flocs is the harvesting via a filter press with a large pore size of 200μm, resulting in MaB-floc recoveries of 79-99% and cakes containing 12-21% dry matter. These results may contribute to evolving MaB-floc SBRs as a valuable remediation strategy, especially for aquaculture and food-processing wastewaters. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Ricordel C.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Djelal H.,Environmental Management and Engineering School
Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering | Year: 2014
The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of electrocoagulation (EC) in treating landfill leachate which has low biodegradability and a high level of inorganic compounds. Landfill leachate was taken from a French landfill which wants to cut down the organic matter present in the leachate especially the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (COD) which must be less than 120 mg O2/L. For this purpose, the effects of the operating parameters of EC, such as the current density j (23-95 A/m 2), electrode gap (2-4 cm), and cathode natures were evaluated to find optimum operating conditions. These parameters were evaluated via COD, turbidity, absorbance at 254 nm, color, NH4+, NO3-, and electrical energy consumption. The COD objective of the French landfill has been obtained after 135 min of electrocoagulation with the following optimum conditions: j = 95 A/m2, 2 cm gap between aluminum electrodes. In this experimental condition, residual turbidity was around 5 NTU and 80% discoloration ratio was acquired. The decrease absorbance at 254 nm showed a removal of humic substances. Nitrate removal was 40% but EC treatment was not appropriate for removing NH4+. The sludge aptitude to settling was studied in terms of sludge volume index. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Pea-Mora F.,Columbia University |
Thomas J.K.,University of Illinois at Urbana - Champaign |
Golparvar-Fard M.,Environmental Management and Engineering School |
Aziz Z.,University of Salford
Journal of Computing in Civil Engineering | Year: 2012
This paper presents a mobile workstation chariot (MWC) that enables first responders and civil engineers to undertake initial disaster reconnaissance and damage assessment operations by quickly traversing hazardous terrain and through provisioning of a necessary computing infrastructure to support real time communication with the command center. The MWC comprises a personal transporter equipped with on board communication equipment and computational processing capabilities to collect, archive, analyze, and report large quantities of data from a disaster site to provide better situation awareness of an emerging disaster scenario. In the case study presented here, the MWC uses a commercially available Segway Personal Transporter modified with a framework designed to carry a payload of information gathering and communication equipment. The MWC supports both horizontal and vertical real time data capture and transmission flow from first responders and civil engineers on the scene up to the command center by means of multilevel wireless voice and data communication infrastructures. This on board computational and visualization infrastructure allows for collecting, aggregating and deaggregating semiautomatic data, analyzing, recording, and reporting critical response and recovery information easily and quickly. © 2012 American Society of Civil Engineers.