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Gimou M.-M.,Center Pasteur of Cameroon | Charrondiere U.R.,Food and Agriculture Organization FAO of the United Nations Nutrition Division | Leblanc J.-C.,Anses | Noel L.,Environmental Inorganic Contaminants and Mineral Unit | And 2 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Dietary exposure to 11 elements was assessed by the Total Diet Study (TDS) method. Sixty-four pooled samples representing 96.5% of the diet in Yaoundé, Cameroon, were prepared as consumed before analysis. Consumption data were sourced from a household budget survey. Dietary exposures were compared with nutritional or health-based guidance values (HBGV) and to worldwide TDS results. Elevated prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated for calcium (71.6%), iron (89.7%), magnesium (31.8%), zinc (46.9%) and selenium (87.3%). The percentage of the study population exceeding the tolerable upper intake levels was estimated as <3.2% for calcium, iron, magnesium, zinc and cobalt; 19.1% of the population exceeded the HBGV for sodium. No exceedance of the HBGV for inorganic mercury was predicted in the population. The margin of exposure ranged from 0.91 to 25.0 for inorganic arsenic depending on the reference point. The "Fish" food group was the highest contributor to intake for calcium (65%), cobalt (32%) and selenium (96%). This group was the highest contributor to the exposure to total arsenic (71%) and organic mercury (96%). The "Cereals and cereal products" highly contributed to iron (26%), zinc (26%) and chromium (25%) intakes. The "Tubers and starches" highly contributed to magnesium (39%) and potassium (52%) intakes. This study highlights the dietary deficiency of some essential elements and a low dietary exposure to toxic elements in Yaoundé. © 2013 Taylor & Francis.


Krystek P.,HIGH-TECH | Tentschert J.,German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment | Nia Y.,Environmental Inorganic Contaminants and Mineral Unit | Trouiller B.,INERIS | And 6 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

Nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the most interesting and valuable nanomaterials for the construction industry but also in health care applications, food, and consumer goods, e.g., cosmetics. Therefore, the properties associated with this material are described in detail. Despite its widespread use, the analytical determination and characterization of nanosized metal oxides is not as straightforward as the comparatively easy-to-detect metallic nanoparticles (e.g., silver or gold). This study presents the method development and the results of the determination of tissue titanium (Ti) levels after treatment of rats with the nanosized TiO2. Total Ti levels were chosen to evaluate the presence and distribution of TiO2 nanoparticles. A procedure consisting of incubation with a mixture of nitric acid (HNO3) and hydrofluoric acid (HF), and heating was developed to digest tissues and TiO2 nanomaterials in order to determine the total Ti content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). For the inter-laboratory comparison, altogether four laboratories analyzed the same samples upon digestion using the available ICPMS equipment. A major premise for any toxicokinetic study is the possibility to detect the chemical under investigation in biological samples (tissues). So, the study has to be performed with a dose high enough to allow for subsequent tissue level measurement of the chemical under investigation. On the other hand, dose of the chemical applied should not induce over toxicity in the animal as this may affect its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion. To determine a non-toxic TiO 2 dosage, an acute toxicity study in rats was performed, and the organs obtained were evaluated for the presence of Ti by ICPMS. Despite the differences in methodology and independent of the sample preparation and the ICPMS equipment used, the results obtained for samples with Ti concentrations >4 μg Ti/g tissue agreed well. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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