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Schnell S.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Schnell S.,Kings College London | Olivares A.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Pina B.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | And 3 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

Sediment contamination poses a potential risk for both ecosystems and human health. Risk assessment is troublesome as sediments contain complex mixtures of toxicants, and traditional chemical analyses can neither provide information about potential hazards to organisms nor identify and measure all present contaminants. This work combines the use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments. The application of multiple endpoints (cytotoxicity, generation of oxidative stress, presence of CYP1A inducing agents, micronucleus formation and estrogenicity) revealed that the organic extracts of those sediments affected by industrial activities or collected near harbours and untreated urban discharges showed significant cytotoxicity, micronuclei and CYP1A induction. The study highlights the usefulness of the applied bioassays to identify those sediments that could pose risk to aquatic organisms and that require further action to improve their environmental quality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Otero L.J.,Universidad del Norte, Colombia | Restrepo J.C.,Universidad del Norte, Colombia | Gonzalez M.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

In this study, the tsunami hazard posed to 120 000 inhabitants of Tumaco (Colombia) is assessed, and an evaluation and analysis of regenerating the previous El Guano Island for tsunami protection is conducted. El Guano Island was a sandy barrier island in front of the city of Tumaco until its disappearance during the tsunami of 1979; the island is believed to have played a protective role, substantially reducing the scale of the disaster. The analysis is conducted by identifying seismotectonic parameters and focal mechanisms of tsunami generation in the area, determining seven potential generation sources, applying a numerical model for tsunami generation and propagation, and evaluating the effect of tsunamis on Tumaco. The results show that in the current situation, this area is vulnerable to impact and flooding by tsunamis originating nearby. El Guano Island was found to markedly reduce flood levels and the energy flux of tsunami waves in Tumaco during the 1979 tsunami. By reducing the risk of flooding due to tsunamis, the regeneration and morphological modification of El Guano Island would help to protect Tumaco. copyright © Author(s) 2014. Source


Garriga M.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Losada I.J.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2010

This paper provides an overview of the current situation of education and training for ICZM in Europe. This overview results from the analysis of the general characteristics, contents and orientation of a significant number of courses from a representative set of countries and international organizations in Europe. This type of comparatively systematic information provides a framework within which education and training efforts can be meaningfully evaluated from a regional perspective. Based on the survey conclusions, the paper reflects on the level of interconnection between the way in which ICZM is currently taught in Europe and the capacity needs arising from the scenario in which it takes place. In view of such scenario, and in order to advance ICZM practice in Europe, some broad recommendations to enhance education and training efforts are finally provided. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


del Barrio P.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Ganju N.K.,U.S. Geological Survey | Aretxabaleta A.L.,U.S. Geological Survey | Hayn M.,Cornell University | And 2 more authors.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2014

Estuarine eutrophication has led to numerous ecological changes, including loss of seagrass beds. One potential cause of these losses is a reduction in light availability due to increased attenuation by phytoplankton. Future sea level rise will also tend to reduce light penetration and modify seagrass habitat. In the present study, we integrate a spectral irradiance model into a biogeochemical model coupled to the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS). It is linked to a bio-optical seagrass model to assess potential seagrass habitat in a eutrophic estuary under future nitrate loading and sea-level rise scenarios. The model was applied to West Falmouth Harbor, a shallow estuary located on Cape Cod (Massachusetts) where nitrate from groundwater has led to eutrophication and seagrass loss in landward portions of the estuary. Measurements of chlorophyll, turbidity, light attenuation, and seagrass coverage were used to assess the model accuracy. Mean chlorophyll based on uncalibrated in-situ fluorometry varied from 28μgL-1 at the landward-most site to 6.5μgL-1 at the seaward site, while light attenuation ranged from 0.86 to 0.45m-1. The model reproduced the spatial variability in chlorophyll and light attenuation with RMS errors of 3.72μgL-1 and 0.07m-1 respectively. Scenarios of future nitrate reduction and sea-level rise suggest an improvement in light climate in the landward basin with a 75% reduction in nitrate loading. This coupled model may be useful to assess habitat availability changes due to eutrophication and sediment resuspension and fully considers spatial variability on the tidal timescale. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Claramunt I.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Perez L.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Accreditation and Quality Assurance | Year: 2014

Phosphorus is the second most important limiting nutrient for the growth of autotrophic organisms in coastal and oceanic environments and is present in a wide range of chemical forms both dissolved and particulate. Within the dissolved inorganic fraction of phosphorus, orthophosphates are the so-called soluble reactive phosphorus. This nutrient, as a central element in coastal and oceanic biogeochemical cycles, is one of the compounds measured for the physico-chemical quality indices established by the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and one of the characteristics to be measured in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC. In this work, an estimation of the measurement uncertainty in the determination of orthophosphates in seawater by continuous flow analysis, based on ISO 15681-2:2003, in the range of 10-150 μg/L as P was carried out by means of a global model of uncertainty quantification from validation data. The results were coherent with previous interlaboratory comparisons of orthophosphates in seawater. Expanded uncertainty did not exceed 6.5 % in the entire range. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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