Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria

Spain

Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria

Spain
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Garriga M.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Losada I.J.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Ocean and Coastal Management | Year: 2010

This paper provides an overview of the current situation of education and training for ICZM in Europe. This overview results from the analysis of the general characteristics, contents and orientation of a significant number of courses from a representative set of countries and international organizations in Europe. This type of comparatively systematic information provides a framework within which education and training efforts can be meaningfully evaluated from a regional perspective. Based on the survey conclusions, the paper reflects on the level of interconnection between the way in which ICZM is currently taught in Europe and the capacity needs arising from the scenario in which it takes place. In view of such scenario, and in order to advance ICZM practice in Europe, some broad recommendations to enhance education and training efforts are finally provided. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


del Barrio Fernandez P.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Gomez A.G.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Alba J.G.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Diaz C.T.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Revilla Cortezon J.A.,University of Cantabria
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2012

A simplified two-dimensional eutrophication model was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of chlorophyll-a in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. This model considers the hydrodynamics of the whole study area, the regulated connexion of the lagoon with the sea, the variability of the input and output nutrient loads, the flux from the sediments to the water column, the phytoplankton growth and mortality kinetics, and the zooplankton grazing. The model was calibrated and validated by applying it to the Albufera of Valencia, a hypertrophic system whose connection to the sea is strongly regulated by a system of sluice-gates. The calibration and validation results presented a significant agreement between the model and the data obtained in several surveys. The accuracy was evaluated using a quantitative analysis, in which the average uncertainty of the model prediction was less than 6%. The results confirmed an expected phytoplankton bloom in April and October, achieving mean maximum values around 250 μg l-1 of chlorophyll-a. A mass balance revealed that the eutrophication process is magnified by the input loads of nutrients, mainly from the sediments, as well as by the limited connection of the lagoon with the sea. This study has shown that the developed model is an efficient tool to manage the eutrophication problem in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Schnell S.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Schnell S.,King's College London | Olivares A.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Pina B.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | And 3 more authors.
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2013

Sediment contamination poses a potential risk for both ecosystems and human health. Risk assessment is troublesome as sediments contain complex mixtures of toxicants, and traditional chemical analyses can neither provide information about potential hazards to organisms nor identify and measure all present contaminants. This work combines the use of the PLHC-1 cell line and the recombinant yeast assay (RYA) to assess the environmental quality of estuarine and coastal sediments. The application of multiple endpoints (cytotoxicity, generation of oxidative stress, presence of CYP1A inducing agents, micronucleus formation and estrogenicity) revealed that the organic extracts of those sediments affected by industrial activities or collected near harbours and untreated urban discharges showed significant cytotoxicity, micronuclei and CYP1A induction. The study highlights the usefulness of the applied bioassays to identify those sediments that could pose risk to aquatic organisms and that require further action to improve their environmental quality. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Otero L.J.,Universidad del Norte, Colombia | Restrepo J.C.,Universidad del Norte, Colombia | Gonzalez M.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences | Year: 2014

In this study, the tsunami hazard posed to 120 000 inhabitants of Tumaco (Colombia) is assessed, and an evaluation and analysis of regenerating the previous El Guano Island for tsunami protection is conducted. El Guano Island was a sandy barrier island in front of the city of Tumaco until its disappearance during the tsunami of 1979; the island is believed to have played a protective role, substantially reducing the scale of the disaster. The analysis is conducted by identifying seismotectonic parameters and focal mechanisms of tsunami generation in the area, determining seven potential generation sources, applying a numerical model for tsunami generation and propagation, and evaluating the effect of tsunamis on Tumaco. The results show that in the current situation, this area is vulnerable to impact and flooding by tsunamis originating nearby. El Guano Island was found to markedly reduce flood levels and the energy flux of tsunami waves in Tumaco during the 1979 tsunami. By reducing the risk of flooding due to tsunamis, the regeneration and morphological modification of El Guano Island would help to protect Tumaco. copyright © Author(s) 2014.


Perez B.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Minguez R.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Guanche R.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Renewable Energy | Year: 2013

Offshore wind power is a renewable energy of growing relevance in current electric energy systems, presenting favorable wind conditions in comparison with the sites on land. However, the higher energy yield has to compensate the increment in installation and maintenance costs, thus the importance of optimizing resources. One relevant aspect to increase profitability is the wind farm layout. The aim of this paper is to propose a new method to maximize the expected power production of offshore wind farms by setting the appropriate layout, i.e. minimizing the wake effects. The method uses a sequential procedure for global optimization consisting of two steps: i) an heuristic method to set an initial random layout configuration, and ii) the use of nonlinear mathematical programming techniques for local optimization, which use the random layout as an initial solution. The method takes full advantage of the most up-to-date mathematical programming techniques while performing a global optimization approach, which can be easily parallelized. The performance of the proposed procedure is tested using the German offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, located in the North Sea, yielding an increment of expected annual power production of 3.52% with respect to the actual configuration. According to current electricity prices in Germany, this constitutes an expected profit increment of almost 1 M€ per year. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Claramunt I.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Perez L.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Accreditation and Quality Assurance | Year: 2014

Phosphorus is the second most important limiting nutrient for the growth of autotrophic organisms in coastal and oceanic environments and is present in a wide range of chemical forms both dissolved and particulate. Within the dissolved inorganic fraction of phosphorus, orthophosphates are the so-called soluble reactive phosphorus. This nutrient, as a central element in coastal and oceanic biogeochemical cycles, is one of the compounds measured for the physico-chemical quality indices established by the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and one of the characteristics to be measured in the Marine Strategy Framework Directive 2008/56/EC. In this work, an estimation of the measurement uncertainty in the determination of orthophosphates in seawater by continuous flow analysis, based on ISO 15681-2:2003, in the range of 10-150 μg/L as P was carried out by means of a global model of uncertainty quantification from validation data. The results were coherent with previous interlaboratory comparisons of orthophosphates in seawater. Expanded uncertainty did not exceed 6.5 % in the entire range. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Guanche R.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute iH Cantabria | Martini M.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute iH Cantabria | Jurado A.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute iH Cantabria | Losada I.J.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute iH Cantabria
Ocean Engineering | Year: 2016

This paper presents a methodology to assess the walk-to-work accessibility of a floating wind turbine. The system composed by the vessel and the platform is modelled in the frequency domain as a rigid, possibly constrained multibody system. Non-linear actions, such mooring and viscous forces are linearised. Extreme maxima for the response variables are calculated assuming that crests are Rayleigh distributed. Two vessels are studied: a catamaran equipped with fender, and a supply vessel mounting a motion-compensated gangway. For the catamaran, accessibility is possible when no-slip conditions between the vessel fender and the ladder landing platform are ensured. For the supply vessel, accessibility is possible when the gangway motions are below the hydraulic system compensation limits. The catamaran is able to handle wave heights up to 2 m, provided that it can work under head sea conditions and take advantage of the shielding effect of the platform. The supply vessel allows personnel transfer with wave heights up to 5 m, but it is important that roll motions are not excited. The proposed methodology and the calculated maps are a valuable source of information for decision-making during personnel transfer to and from offshore floating platforms. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Zouiten H.,University of Cantabria | Diaz C.T.,University of Cantabria | Diaz C.T.,Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria | Gomez A.G.,University of Cantabria | And 3 more authors.
Ecological Modelling | Year: 2013

A mathematical eutrophication model, EnvHydrEM (Environmental Hydraulics Institute Eutrophication Model), was developed to be applied specifically to coastal lagoons. This model takes into consideration 19 state variables, including phytoplankton, carbon (total inorganic carbon and sediment carbon), phosphorus (organic phosphorus and phosphate), nitrogen (organic nitrogen, ammonia and nitrate), silica (available dissolved and particulate biogenic silica), dissolved oxygen, carbonaceous organic matter, zooplankton, bacterioplankton, detritus, iron (total and ferrous iron) and manganese (total manganese and manganous ion). EnvHydrEM also describes all possible interactions between the considered variables, showing biological and physicochemical processes that can occur in this type of aquatic systems. These are usually characterized by a series of peculiar aspects which result mainly from the complex interaction between inland and marine waters, as well as from a low hydrodynamic renewal rate. To provide an example, the EnvHydrEM model was applied to the study of the eutrophication process in the Victoria lagoon, in northern Spain. In this case study, the proposed model has proved its ability to reproduce the chlorophyll-a concentration trends in the water body. The study also concluded that the Victoria lagoon is a mesotrophic aquatic media in which silica is the most critical factor for the analysis of its eutrophication state, due mainly to the presence of diatoms. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Polytechnic University of Turin and Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Type: | Journal: TheScientificWorldJournal | Year: 2015

The ISWEC (inertial sea wave energy converter) is presented, its control problems are stated, and an optimal control strategy is introduced. As the aim of the device is energy conversion, the mean absorbed power by ISWEC is calculated for a plane 2D irregular sea state. The response of the WEC (wave energy converter) is driven by the sea-surface elevation, which is modeled by a stationary and homogeneous zero mean Gaussian stochastic process. System equations are linearized thus simplifying the numerical model of the device. The resulting response is obtained as the output of the coupled mechanic-hydrodynamic model of the device. A stochastic suboptimal controller, derived from optimal control theory, is defined and applied to ISWEC. Results of this approach have been compared with the ones obtained with a linear spring-damper controller, highlighting the capability to obtain a higher value of mean extracted power despite higher power peaks.


PubMed | Environmental Hydraulics Institute IH Cantabria
Type: | Journal: Journal of environmental management | Year: 2012

A simplified two-dimensional eutrophication model was developed to simulate temporal and spatial variations of chlorophyll-a in heavily regulated coastal lagoons. This model considers the hydrodynamics of the whole study area, the regulated connexion of the lagoon with the sea, the variability of the input and output nutrient loads, the flux from the sediments to the water column, the phytoplankton growth and mortality kinetics, and the zooplankton grazing. The model was calibrated and validated by applying it to the Albufera of Valencia, a hypertrophic system whose connection to the sea is strongly regulated by a system of sluice-gates. The calibration and validation results presented a significant agreement between the model and the data obtained in several surveys. The accuracy was evaluated using a quantitative analysis, in which the average uncertainty of the model prediction was less than 6%. The results confirmed an expected phytoplankton bloom in April and October, achieving mean maximum values around 250gl(-1) of chlorophyll-a. A mass balance revealed that the eutrophication process is magnified by the input loads of nutrients, mainly from the sediments, as well as by the limited connection of the lagoon with the sea. This study has shown that the developed model is an efficient tool to manage the eutrophication problem in heavily regulated coastal lagoons.

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