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Khanchi A.,Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau Health Canada | Hebbern C.A.,Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau Health Canada | Zhu J.,0 Columbine Driveway | Cakmak S.,Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau Health Canada
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2015

Objective: We examined relationships among measurements of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and performed cancer and non-cancer risk assessments to determine potential adverse health effects. Methods: Personal, indoor and outdoor concentrations of VOCs were measured for 50 non-smoking adults in Windsor, Ontario during winter and summer 2005. The potential excess cancer cases associated with personal concentration were estimated by the Inhalation Unit Risk (USEPA IRIS) and Tumorigenic Concentration (Health Canada). Inhalation Reference Concentration (RfC) was used to evaluate non-cancer adverse effects. Indoor and personal concentrations were statistically compared. Correlations of personal concentrations were estimated to investigate the associations among VOCs. Results: Estimated median lifetime excess cancer risks (95th percentile upper-bound) of benzene and 1,3-butadiene were 8.09 and 4.77 per 1 million. Acetaldehyde presented the highest non-cancer risk. For some VOCs, the personal and indoor geometric means were similar, but arithmetic personal means were higher than the arithmetic indoor means (p < 0.05). Negative correlations among personal VOC concentrations were not sizable. Conclusion: Evaluation of potential cancer and non-cancer risks from VOCs at the personal level should not rely merely on ambient (indoor and outdoor) VOC concentrations. Our analysis showed that personal risk had a complicated pattern that needs further investigation. Our results can be used to prioritize mitigation strategies to protect human health. © 2015. Source


Gollapudi B.B.,Eponent | Lynch A.M.,Glaxosmithkline | Heflich R.H.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Dertinger S.D.,Litron Laboratories, Ltd. | And 10 more authors.
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2015

The in vivo Pig-a assay uses flow cytometry to measure phenotypic variants for antibody binding to cell surface glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. There is good evidence suggesting that the absence of antibody binding is the result of a mutation in the endogenous X-linked Pig-a gene, which forms the rationale for the assay. Although the assay has been performed with several types of hematopoietic cells and in a variety of mammalian species, including humans, currently it is optimized only for measuring CD59-deficient (presumed Pig-a mutant) erythrocytes in the peripheral blood of rats. An expert workgroup formed by the International Workshop on Genotoxicity Testing considered the state of assay development and the potential of the assay for regulatory use. Consensus was reached on what is known about the Pig-a assay and how it should be conducted, and recommendations were made on additional data and refinements that would help to further enhance the assay for use in hazard identification and risk assessment. © 2014. Source

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