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Brender J.D.,Texas A&M University | Kelley K.E.,Boston University | Werler M.M.,Boston University | Langlois P.H.,Birth Defects Epidemiology and Surveillance Branch | And 2 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology

BACKROUND: Experimental evidence indicates that certain drugs, that are secondary or tertiary amines or amides, form N-nitroso compounds in the presence of nitrite in an acidic environment. Nitrosatable drugs have been associated with birth defects in a few epidemiologic studies. This study describes the prevalence and patterns of nitrosatable drug use among U.S. women during early pregnancy and examines maternal factors associated with such use. METHODS: Data were analyzed from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study and included 6807 mothers who gave birth to babies without major congenital malformations during 1997 to 2005. Information was collected by telephone interview about medication use, demographic factors, and maternal health. Drugs taken during the first trimester were classified according to nitrosatability, amine and amide functional groups, and primary indication of use. RESULTS: Approximately 24% of the women took one or more nitrosatable drugs during the first trimester, including 12.4%, 12.2%, and 7.6% who respectively took secondary amines, tertiary amines, or amides. Five of the ten most commonly taken drugs were available over the counter. Women who were non-Hispanic white (29.5%), with 1 year or more college education (27.3%) or 40 years or older (28.8%) had the highest prevalence of use. Supplemental vitamin C, an inhibitor of nitrosation, was not taken by 41.6% and 19.3% of nitrosatable drug users during the first and second months of pregnancy, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In this U.S. population, ingestion of drugs classified as nitrosatable was common during the first trimester of pregnancy, especially among non-Hispanic white, more educated, and older mothers. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Source

Ramirez A.G.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Weiss N.S.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Holden A.E.C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio | Suarez L.,Environmental Epidemiology and Disease Registries | And 3 more authors.

Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is increasing in the U.S. despite a decline in cancer overall. Latinos have higher rates of HCC than the general population according to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. Not included in SEER, Texas Latinos make up one-fifth of the U.S. Latino population. To determine whether HCC incidence differs among U.S. and Texas Latinos, this descriptive study compares HCC incidence from 1995 through 2006 among three Latino populations: U.S. SEER, Texas overall and a South Texas subset. To identify lines of prevention research, we compare prevalence of known HCC risk factors among these Latino groups. Methods: Data were collected from the U.S. SEER Program, Texas Cancer Registry and Texas Department of State Health Services (TDSHS). Annual age-specific and age-adjusted HCC incidence rates, annual percent changes (APCs) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated as well as prevalence of obesity, diabetes, heavy alcohol use and cigarette smoking. Results: Of the three Latino groups compared, South Texas Latinos had the highest age-adjusted HCC incidence rates and SEER Latinos had the lowest (10.6/100,000 (10.1-11.1) and 7.5/100,000 (7.2-7.7), respectively). HCC incidence significantly increased over time (APCs>0) among Latinos in all three geographic groups. Between 1995 and 2006, there was an increase in obesity among all three populations, and obesity was highest among South Texas Latinos. Diabetes increased among U.S. Latinos, and Latino women in South Texas had significantly higher diabetes prevalence than U.S. Latino women. Cigarette smoking and heavy alcohol use were similar among groups. Conclusions: The incidence of HCC among Latinos in South Texas is higher than elsewhere in the United States. Higher rates of HCC among Texas and South Texas Latinos may be associated with greater prevalence of obesity and diabetes, risk factors for HCC that are amenable to intervention. © 2012 Ramirez et al. Source

Brender J.D.,Texas A&M University | Werler M.M.,Boston University | Shinde M.U.,Texas A&M University | Vuong A.M.,Texas A&M University | And 9 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology

BACKGROUND: Nitrosatable drugs can react with nitrite in the stomach to form N-nitroso compounds, and results from animal studies suggest that N-nitroso compounds are teratogens. With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, the relation between prenatal exposure to nitrosatable drugs and limb deficiencies, oral cleft, and heart malformations in offspring was examined. METHODS: Maternal reports of drugs taken during the first trimester of pregnancy were classified with respect to nitrosatability for mothers of 741 babies with limb deficiencies, 2774 with oral cleft malformations, 8091 with congenital heart malformations, and 6807 without major congenital malformations. Nitrite intake was estimated from maternal responses to a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Isolated transverse limb deficiencies and atrioventricular septal defects were associated with secondary amine drug exposures (adjusted odds ratios [aORs], 1.51; 95% confidence limit [CI], 1.11-2.06 and aOR, 1.97; 95% CI, 1.19-3.26, respectively). Tertiary amines were associated with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (aOR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.04) and single ventricle (aOR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.06-2.45). These two malformations were also significantly associated with amide drugs. For several malformations, the strongest associations with nitrosatable drug use occurred among mothers with the highest estimated dietary nitrite intake, especially for secondary amines and atrioventricular septal defects (highest tertile of nitrite, aOR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.44-7.58). CONCLUSION: Prenatal exposure to nitrosatable drugs may be associated with several congenital malformations, especially with higher nitrite intake. The possible interaction between nitrosatable drugs and dietary nitrite on risk of congenital malformations warrants further attention. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Shinde M.U.,Texas A&M University | Vuong A.M.,Texas A&M University | Brender J.D.,Texas A&M University | Werler M.M.,Boston University | And 9 more authors.
Birth Defects Research Part A - Clinical and Molecular Teratology

BACKGROUND: Nitrosatable drugs, such as secondary or tertiary amines and amides react with nitrite in an acidic environment to form N-nitroso compounds, teratogens in animal models. Vitamin C is a known nitrosation inhibitor. METHODS: Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we assessed nitrosatable drug exposure and vitamin C intake during the first trimester among 11,606 case-mothers of infants with oral clefts, limb deficiencies (LDs), or congenital heart defects and 6807 control-mothers of infants without major birth defects during 1997-2005. Daily intake of vitamin C was estimated from maternal interviews that elicited information about supplement use and dietary intake. RESULTS: With no reported use of nitrosatable drugs as the referent group, a lower odds ratio (OR) was observed for transverse LDs among births to mothers exposed to secondary amine drugs and daily vitamin C supplementation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.83-1.8) compared with women taking these drugs and no supplementation (aOR 2.7, 95% CI 1.5-4.6). The OR for longitudinal LDs associated with secondary amine exposure was lower with daily dietary vitamin C intake ≥85 mg (aOR 1.2, 95% CI 0.68-2.0) compared with <85 mg (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.2-3.1). Daily vitamin C supplementation in combination with higher dietary vitamin C intake reduced associations between nitrosatable drug exposures and limb deficiencies and atrial septal defects not otherwise specified. CONCLUSION: Prenatal dietary and vitamin C supplement intake may diminish the association between nitrosatable drug exposure during pregnancy and selected birth defects. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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