Environmental Energy Resources (EER)

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Zhang Q.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Dor L.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Yang W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Blasiak W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Air and Waste Management Association - International Conference on Thermal Treatment Technologies and Hazardous Waste Combustors 2011 | Year: 2011

A steady CFD model is developed to simulate the gasification of municipal solid waste (MSW) in a moving-bed Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) reactor. In this model, the Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase model is conducted, and the solid phase is treated as a plastic fluid. The conservation equations of both gas and solid phases are solved respectively. The momentum conservation equations of the solid phase are simplified by disregarding the interphase forces between gas and solid. Both heterogeneous reactions and homogeneous reactions are defined in this model to express the detailed gasification chemistry inside the reactor. A two-step pyrolysis model was used in this work, and the pyrolysis mechanisms of cellulosic and plastic fractions are considered separately. The predicted results of a base case are compared with the measured data of the trial reactor. The temperature distribution inside the PGM reactor is introduced. Based on the variation of temperature, the whole reaction shaft was divided into five layers. The 2D effect of the reactor is also discussed. The influence of two dimensionless parameters: the equivalence ratio (ER) and dimensionless plasma energy ratio (DPER) are introduced and discussed. With the variation of ER, two typical temperature distributions can be found for PGM reactor. The turning point of these two distributions stands in the ER range 0.120-0.133. This turning point is the optimal operation condition of PGM air gasification. It is also found that when the energy request for gasification is satisfied, further increment of DPER value does not significantly influence the characters of PGM process.


Zhang Q.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Dor L.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Yang W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Blastak W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
International Conference on Thermal Treatment Technologies and Hazardous Waste Combustors 2010 | Year: 2010

A new solid waste treatment method called Plasma Gasification & Melting (PGM) has been developed by Environmental Energy Resources Ltd. (EER). In this technology, high temperature plasma air and steam arc used to convert the waste into high-quality combustible syngas and vitreous benign slag. Due to the special features of the technology it is applicable for various stream of the solid waste field such as MSW, Medical Waste (MW) and Low Level Radioactive Waste (LLRW), where the technology was derived from. The aim of this study is to discuss the characteristics of this technology, and find out the optimal operation condition for a PGM plant. A simulation model of the PGM process was built up and validated by the test results of a PGM demonstration plant. The result shows that the syngas LCV of PGM is much higher than that of traditional gasification. For air gasification, there exists a lower limit of air/MSW mass ratio for 100% conversion of MSW. When the air/MSW mass ratio exceeds the limitation, the syngas LCV will descend by dilution of CO2 and N2. The tar yield will decrease, because of higher pyrolysis temperature. For air/steam gasification, high temperature steam as gasification agent can reduce the limitation of air/MSW mass ratio, so further enhance the syngas quality. The influence of plasma power will be more prominent for air/steam gasification than air gasification. Based on above discussion, an optimizing conception design aiming at producing syngas with high LCV and energy efficiency of a PGM process is suggested.


Zhang Q.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Wu Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Dor L.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Yang W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Blasiak W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2013

Plasma Gasification Melting is a promising technology for solid waste treatment. In this work, a thermodynamic analysis has been conducted to evaluate the advantages and limitations of the PGM technology. According to the characteristics of the PGM, the whole process was divided into four sections such as drying, pyrolysis, char gasification and inorganics melting. The energy and exergy in each section has been calculated. According to different usage of syngas, two kinds of energy and exergy efficiencies are defined. The results show that the PGM process produces a tar-rich syngas. When considering the raw syngas (syngas with tar), the energy and exergy efficiency of PGM process is very high. The effects of operating conditions on the thermodynamic performance of the PGM process have been analyzed. Considering the energy and exergy of clean syngas, it is beneficial to increase sensible heat input to the PGM system. However, high sensible heat input or high steam injection is not suggested when considering the energy and exergy efficiency of raw syngas. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang Q.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Arnold L.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Wu Y.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Yang W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Blasiak W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Air and Waste Management Association - International Conference on Thermal Treatment Technologies and Hazardous Waste Combustors 2012 | Year: 2012

Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) is a promising waste-to-energy technology which produces an inert vitrified slag and a high calorific value syngas from various solid wastes. The syngas can be either directly used as fuel to gas furnaces, or used in gas turbines after tar removal. In this work, a system model was built to calculate the energy and exergy efficiencies of PGM systems with different energy recovery options. Three PGM systems are considered: the PGM system with a steam turbine (Rankine cycle), the PGM system with a gas turbine (Brayton cycle), and the PGM system with an Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle (IGCC). Furthermore, the effect of tar recycling on the PGM system with IGCC is also investigated. For each system, energy and exergy efficiencies at the optimal operation condition are analyzed. The results show that the PGM system with a steam turbine presents the highest overall energy efficiency, but relatively low electrical efficiency due to exergy loss in the boiler. The other two systems then suffer energy and exergy loss from tar removal in the gas cleanup section. It is also found that the recycling of removed tar into the high temperature zone of the PGM reactor can significantly increase both the electrical energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the PGM + IGCC system.


Zhang Q.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Dor L.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Fenigshtein D.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Yang W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Blasiak W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

A new waste-disposal technology named Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) was developed. A pilot PGM reactor was constructed in northern Israel. The reactor is an updraft moving-bed gasifier, with plasma torches placed next to air nozzles to heat the incoming air to 6000 °C. The inorganic substances of the feedstock are melted by the high-temperature air to form a vitrified slag in which undesirable materials such as heavy metals are trapped. The residual heat in the air supplies additional heat for the gasification process.A series of tests were conducted to study the performance of PGM gasification. The plasma power was varied from 2.88 to 3.12. MJ/kg of municipal solid waste (MSW), and the equivalence ratio (ER) was varied from 0.08 to 0.12. For air and steam gasification, the maximum steam/MSW mass ratio reached 0.33.The composition of the syngas product was analyzed in all tests; the lower heating value (LHV) of the syngas varied from 6 to 7MJ/Nm3. For air gasification, the syngas LHV decreased with increasing ER, whereas the gas yield and energy efficiency increased with ER. When high-temperature steam was fed into the reactor, the overall gas yield was increased significantly, and the syngas LHV also increased slightly. The positive effect may be attributed to the steam reforming of tar. In air and steam gasification, the influence of increased ER on syngas LHV was negative, while the effect of increased plasma power was positive. The maximum energy efficiency of the tests reached 58%. The main energy loss was due to the formation of tar. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Zhang Q.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Dor L.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Zhang L.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Yang W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology | Blasiak W.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology
Applied Energy | Year: 2012

Plasma Gasification Melting (PGM) is a novel gasification technology which offers a promising treatment of low-heating-value fuels like municipal solid waste (MSW), medical waste (MW) and other types of waste. By considering the differences in pyrolysis characteristics between cellulosic fractions and plastics in MSW, a semi-empirical model was developed to predict the performance of the PGM process. The measured results of MSW air and steam gasification in a PGM demo-reactor are demonstrated and compared with the model predicted results. Then, the effects of dimensionless operation parameters (ER, PER, and SAMR) are discussed. It was found that all three numbers have positive effects on system cold gas efficiency (CGE). The reasons can be attributed to promoted tar cracking by enhanced heat supply. The effects of PER and ASME on syngas LHV are also positive. The influence of ER on syngas pyrolysis can be divided into two parts. When 0.04 < ER < 0.065, the effect of ER is on LHV positive; when 0.065 < ER < 0.08, the effect of ER is positive. This phenomenon was explained by two contradictory effects of ER. It is also found that interactions exist between operation parameters. For example, increasing PER narrows the possible range of ER while increasing SAMR broadens possible ER range. Detail extents for those operation parameters are demonstrated and discussed in this paper. Finally, the optimal point aiming at obtaining maximum syngas LHV and system CGE are given. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Dor L.,Environmental Energy Resources (EER) | Bartocci A.C.,Envitech Inc.
International Conference on Thermal Treatment Technologies and Hazardous Waste Combustors 2010 | Year: 2010

A plasma gasification melting (PGM) technology has been developed to transform waste into synthesis gas and products suitable for construction materials. The core of the technology was developed at the Kurchatov Institute in Russia and has been used for more than a decade for the treatment of low and intermediate level radioactive waste in Russia. It is applicable to municipal solid waste (MSW), municipal effluent sludge, industrial waste and medical waste. Plans are currently underway to build a plant in the US to recycle medical waste using the PGM technology into a high calorific Syngas and a benign residue. Both output materials may be considered secondary materials since they have commercial use in other processes. Current plans include the production of steam which will be sold as a commodity to nearby industrial users. The Syngas is fed into a Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) to produce superheated steam for use as heat or electricity generation using a steam generator. The exhaust gas leaving the HRSG will enter an Air Pollution control (APC) system for post process gas cleaning. The APC system will use a wet scrubber system that has successfully achieved low emission standards on other typical combustion processes. This paper will discuss how these technologies are combined to create an economically viable and environmentally friendly solution for converting medical waste into energy.


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