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Mansourian S.,Environmental Consultant | Mansourian S.,University of Geneva
Journal for Nature Conservation | Year: 2017

Governance challenges are frequently underestimated in forest landscape restoration. Forest restoration practitioners are generally foresters or ecologists and their focus tends to be limited to the specific restoration interventions themselves, such as removing exotic species, protecting sites for natural regeneration and re-planting indigenous trees. Indeed there are many technical challenges, unknowns in technical aspects of forest landscape restoration and knowledge gaps. However, and even more so when dealing with large scales, additional challenges that fall under the governance umbrella such as tenure, policy measures and institutions have a significant impact on restoration, influencing it either positively or negatively. Conversely, the landscape-scale restoration work itself can influence and shape governance arrangements. This paper attempts to explore this wider relationship between large scale forest restoration − and specifically forest landscape restoration (FLR) − and governance. It is intended to assist and provide guidance to forest landscape restoration practitioners, researchers and policymakers on the consideration and importance of governance, and alternative ways in which the two-way relationship (between governance and FLR) plays out. A framework is proposed to support practitioners, researchers and decision-makers to address governance in forest landscape restoration. © 2017 Elsevier GmbH


Hidy G.M.,Envair Aerochem | Blanchard C.L.,Envair | Baumann K.,Atmospheric Research and Analysis Inc. | Edgerton E.,Atmospheric Research and Analysis Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

A series of experiments (the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study - SOAS) took place in central Alabama in June-July, 2013 as part of the broader Southern Atmosphere Study (SAS). These projects were aimed at studying oxidant photochemistry and formation and impacts of aerosols at a detailed process level in a location where high biogenic organic vapor emissions interact with anthropogenic emissions, and the atmospheric chemistry occurs in a subtropical climate in North America. The majority of the ground-based experiments were located at the Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) Centreville (CTR) site near Brent, Alabama, where extensive, unique aerometric measurements of trace gases and particles and meteorology were made beginning in the early 1990s through 2013. The SEARCH network data permits a characterization of the temporal and spatial context of the SOAS findings. Our earlier analyses of emissions and air quality trends are extended through 2013 to provide a perspective for continued decline in ambient concentrations, and the implications of these changes to regional sulfur oxide, nitrogen-ozone, and carbon chemistry. The narrative supports the SAS program in terms of long-term average chemistry (chemical climatology) and short-term comparisons of early summer average spatial variability across the southeastern US at high temporal (hourly) resolution. The long-term measurements show that the SOAS experiments took place during the second wettest and coolest year in the 2000-2013 period, with lower than average solar radiation. The pollution levels at CTR and other SEARCH sites were the lowest since full measurements began in 1999. Changes in anthropogenic gas and particle emissions between 1999 and 2013 account for the decline in pollutant concentrations at the monitoring sites in the region. The data provide an opportunity to contrast SOAS results with temporally and spatially variable conditions in support of the development of tests for the robustness of SOAS findings. © Author(s) 2014.


News Article | November 21, 2016
Site: www.prnewswire.com

ROCKWELL CITY, Iowa, Nov. 21, 2016 /PRNewswire/ -- Becky S. Sexton is recognized by Continental Who's Who among Pinnacle Professionals in the field of Environmental Services. Becky is an Environmental Consultant with Twin Lakes Environmental Services.   In business for several years,...


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.prweb.com

With Broken Sound Club (BSC) “setting the course” as home to the PGA Champions Tour’s season opener for the 11th consecutive year, the Allianz Championship’s full-field roster of golf legends will be competing on what has been ranked as the 2016 ELGA Best Overall and National Private Course in the country. More than 70,000 spectators are expected on-site at The Old Course at Broken Sound to follow last year’s defending champion Esteban Toledo and other PGA favorites including Fred Couples, Bernhard Langer, John Daly, Jose Maria Olazabal and David Toms as they vie for the $1.6 million purse and the tournament event benefits Boca Raton Regional Hospital. In January BSC, a 5-Star Platinum Club of America, was selected as the Overall and National Private recipient of the 2016 Environmental Leaders in Golf Awards(ELGA). The annual award rankings are presented annually by the Golf Course Superintendents Association of America (GCSAA) and Golf Digest in partnership with Syngenta and Rain Bird’s Golf Division. The private, gated golf and country club community was the only Florida or Southeastern U.S.-based award winner this year at the national or international leader level. BSC, its two Audubon Sanctuary and GEO Certified golf courses and Golf Course Maintenance Director and Environmental Consultant Shannon Easter received the ELGA honors this week at the Opening Session at the 2017 Golf Industry Show and featured in upcoming issues of Golf Digest and GCSAA’s magazine Golf Course Management. Awardees are selected by an independent panel of judges representing national environmental groups, turfgrass experts, university researchers and valued members of the golf industry to recognize golf course superintendents and their courses for overall course management excellence and best management practices. Such practices include areas of water conservation, water quality management, energy conservation, pollution prevention, waste management, wildlife and habitat conservation, communication and outreach and leadership. In addition to the national winners, 19 chapter and nine merit winners were chosen from GCSAA’s 98 affiliated chapters. “We are excited to deliver to the PGA Champions Tour the best overall and national private golf course in the country for this year’s tournament,” notes BSC GM and COO John Crean, CCE. “We always strive to drive the best for our members and tournament players, and this ELGA recognition confirms that we at Broken Sound Club are leaders in golf experience underscored in sustainability. When other clubs and course management teams across the country were hesitant, and some resistant, to embracing our trailblazing eco-vision to be ‘greener on the greens’, we are pleased that many are now following suit.” BSC’s sustainability mission and efforts through the on-course stewardship of its Maintenance Director and Environmental Consultant Shannon Easter has significantly reduced chemical inputs for the past three years at the Club's 36-hole facilities​ by eliminating proactive treatment and raising thresholds for treatments only tended “as necessary”. Such eco-strategy has created both a welcome habitat for native wildlife, including several endangered species and a healthier environment for club members and golfers. During Allianz Championship Media Day, defending champion Esteban Toledo gave sustainability and playability accolades to Crean, saying it is “fantastic what you at Broken Sound Club are doing” noting he ranked The Old Course greens as “one of his top three in the whole [2016] season.” BROKEN SOUND CLUB: WHERE AVID GOLFERS LIVE AND PLAY The Only Private “Two Golf Club” Residential Community In Florida Teeing up The Old Course as a “pure” golf experience environment, its designer Joe Lee noted, “This is the most peaceful setting I’ve ever worked in the middle of one of the fastest growing areas in the country. The only sound that broke the silence was the sound of a golfer swinging his club.“ Hence the name, Broken Sound, was created. Those who play the eminent course discover the natural beauty of South Florida at its best through a landscape of woods, stone bridges, lakes and lagoons for an experience reminiscent of courses in Pinehurst, North Carolina. Generous rolling fairways, elevated greens, sculpted bunkers and an abundance of trees unique to South Florida are all incorporated into this 18-hole Joe Lee designed classic that tees up 110 acres of grass, the largest stand of natural Florida maple trees in the county, and 30-40 acres of lakes. Gene Bates’s 2002 renovation gave the 6,800-yard, par-72 course more water, while infusing a look very uncharacteristic of South Florida golf courses. Tucked away in an oak-lined setting just a few minutes from Broken Sound Club’s gates, The Old Course is a golfer’s sanctuary with the camaraderie and ambiance found in a traditional golf club in an unexpected private place. Members will say the limited membership to this course is as much a family as a private club. The shapes of the ragged edges and design of the bunkers give it an Old World feel from the early 1920s and 1930s. Consistent and fast while also looking healthy, the course has a beautiful natural look with many native grasses. There are no concrete cart paths, only those made of natural coquina shell. According to BSC Old Course Golf Director Jeff Waber, “Every hole is unique and looks completely different. It is located in the middle of the City, has no homes and resembles a northern look that is very untypical of Florida.” He adds that golfers who look for a challenge, whether it's the Club player or members of the Champions Tour, The Old Course presents that challenge with a group of par-3s that rival any throughout Florida. It’s a course with island greens that test all handicap levels. “Golf purists love the intimacy they find here,” has noted Old Course member Phil Karp who moved from New York with his wife Paula over 20 years ago. “It’s a rarity in southern Florida to have a private course and not find a single home on the golf course. When you add in a world-class range and practice area, this is a golfer’s dream.” “Member experience, quality facilities, environmental enhancement and sustainability development continue to remain central to our business model for many years,” acknowledged Crean, a recognized country club industry champion and avid steward of sustainability. “Securing the ELGA ranking and continuing to retain our GEO and Audubon Sanctuary recertification, our continued investment in The Old Course and enhancing its amenities all are testament to that commitment.” BSC is located at 2401 Willow Springs Drive, Boca Raton, FL. For Club membership, contact Membership Director Maureen Schreiber at (561) 241-6800 or visit http://www.brokensoundclub.org. About Broken Sound Club: Whatever one’s passion or interest…their active enviable home life, business life, sporting life, and social life complement each other perfectly at BSC. Known as the “friendly” club for its signature blend of warmth, elegance and genuine hospitality, this award-winning private gated golf and country club community offers a choice of 27 lushly landscaped intimate residential villages, each with its own character. All are just minutes away from its main clubhouse with indoor/outdoor dining, two signature golf courses, a two-acre $6 million poolscape with bistro, a $7 million 35,000-square-foot spa and fitness center and 23 tennis courts. Close to two international airports and private Boca Raton Executive Airport, BSC is a few miles from pristine beaches, Boca’s burgeoning Class A office parks, a vibrant Downtown, A-rated public and award-winning private schools, two universities, FAU Stadium, world-class shopping, dining, culture, recreation and nightlife.


Borner J.,University of Bonn | Borner J.,Center for International Forestry Research | Wunder S.,Center for International Forestry Research | Wertz-Kanounnikoff S.,Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Development | And 2 more authors.
Global Environmental Change | Year: 2014

Despite recent success in reducing forest loss in the Brazilian Amazon, additional forest conservation efforts, for example, through 'Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation' (REDD+), could significantly contribute to global climate-change mitigation. Economic incentives, such as payments for environmental services could promote conservation, but deforestation often occurs on land without crucial tenure-security prerequisites. Improving the enforcement of existing regulatory disincentives thus represents an important element of Brazil's anti-deforestation action plan. However, conservation law enforcement costs and benefits have been much less studied than for conditional payments. We develop a conceptual framework and a spatially explicit model to analyze field-based regulatory enforcement in the Brazilian Amazon. We validate our model, based on historical deforestation and enforcement mission data from 2003 to 2008. By simulating the current conservation law enforcement practice, we analyze the costs of liability establishment and legal coercion for alternative conservation targets, and evaluate corresponding income impacts. Our findings suggest that spatial patterns of both deforestation and inspection costs markedly influence enforcement patterns and their income effects. Field-based enforcement is a highly cost-effective forest conservation instrument from a regulator's point of view, but comes at high opportunity costs for land users. Payments for environmental services could compensate costs, but will increase budget outlays vis-à-vis a command-and-control dominated strategy. Both legal and institutional challenges have to be overcome to make conservation payments work at a larger scale. Decision-makers may have to innovatively combine incentive and disincentive-based policy instruments in order to make tropical forest conservation both financially viable and socially compatible. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Knight J.,Environmental Consultant | Rovida C.,University of Konstanz
Altex | Year: 2014

The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing.


Todd J.A.,Environmental Consultant | Pyke C.,U.S. Green Building Council | Tufts R.,U.S. Green Building Council
Building Research and Information | Year: 2013

Green building rating systems serve multiple functions: they define the attributes of green buildings, provide tools for environmental assessment and include specific interventions intended to promote market transformation. These goals are often complementary, but can also create tensions in the design and application of rating systems. Recent patterns and trends are considered for projects certified using LEED-NC and LEED-EBOM (new construction and existing buildings, respectively) rating systems. New data are presented on (1) patterns and trends in on-going market transformation (credit achievement, levels of certification and types, geographic distribution of project, etc.) and (2) the design and revision of the LEED rating system based on broad patterns of engagement and the achievement of individual credits. The data indicate strong regional and temporal variation in green building activity. The flexibility of LEED has allowed a diversity of credit achievement patterns. Information on these market-based patterns and trends can be used to balance the need for market engagement with the mission to raise standards over time. Patterns and trends for different locations can stimulate discussion of different markets and the most effective approaches for their transformation. © 2013 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Mansourian S.,Environmental Consultant | Vallauri D.,WWF France
Environmental Management | Year: 2014

Forest restoration at large scales, or landscapes, is an approach that is increasingly relevant to the practice of environmental conservation. However, implementation remains a challenge; poor monitoring and lesson learning lead to similar mistakes being repeated. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the global conservation organization, recently took stock of its 10 years of implementation of forest landscape restoration. A significant body of knowledge has emerged from the work of the WWF and its partners in the different countries, which can be of use to the wider conservation community, but for this to happen, lessons need to be systematically collected and disseminated in a coherent manner to the broader conservation and development communities and, importantly, to policy makers. We use this review of the WWF's experiences and compare and contrast it with other relevant and recent literature to highlight 11 important lessons for future large-scale forest restoration interventions. These lessons are presented using a stepwise approach to the restoration of forested landscapes. We identify the need for long-term commitment and funding, and a concerted and collaborative effort for successful forest landscape restoration. Our review highlights that monitoring impact within landscape-scale forest restoration remains inadequate. We conclude that forest restoration within landscapes is a challenging yet important proposition that has a real but undervalued place in environmental conservation in the twenty-first century. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Lipfert F.W.,Environmental Consultant
Atmosphere | Year: 2015

Most studies of air pollution health effects are based on outdoor ambient exposures, mainly because of the availability of population-based data and the need to support emission control programs. However, there is also a large body of literature on indoor air quality that is more relevant to personal exposures. This assessment attempts to merge these two aspects of pollution-related health effects, emphasizing fine particles. However, the basic concepts are applicable to any pollutant. The objectives are to examine sensitivities of epidemiological studies to the inclusion of personal exposure information and to assess the resulting data requirements. Indoor air pollution results from penetration of polluted outdoor air and from various indoor sources, among which environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is probably the most toxic and pervasive. Adequate data exist on infiltration of outdoor air but less so for indoor sources and effects, all of which have been based on surveys of small samples of individual buildings. Since epidemiology is based on populations, these data must be aggregated using probabilistic methods. Estimates of spatial variation and precision of ambient air quality are also needed. Hypothetical personal exposures in this paper are based on ranges in outdoor air quality, variable infiltration rates, and ranges of indoor source strength. These uncertainties are examined with respect to two types of mortality studies: time series analysis of daily deaths in a given location, and cross-sectional analysis of annual mortality rates among locations. Regressions of simulated mortality on personal exposures, as affected by all of these uncertainties, are used to examine effects on dose-response functions using quasi-Monte Carlo methods. The working hypothesis is that indoor sources are reasonably steady over time and thus applicable only to long-term cross-sectional studies. Uncertainties in exposure attenuate the simulated mortality regression coefficients; correlations between "true" and hypothesized exposures are used to compare their effects. For a given exposure uncertainty level, attenuation of regression coefficients is similar for both types of simulated mortality studies, but since cross-sectional studies involve indoor sources they are more sensitive, to the point where regression coefficients may be driven to zero. The most pressing need for confirming data is the distribution of indoor sources among cities, especially for ETS. © 2015 by the authors.


News Article | November 19, 2016
Site: marketersmedia.com

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