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Babinard J.,The World Bank | Bennett C.R.,The World Bank | Hatziolos M.E.,The World Bank | Faiz A.,Highway Advisor | Somani A.,Environmental Consultant
Natural Resources Forum | Year: 2014

The growing demand for construction materials in South Tarawa, a remote atoll in the South Pacific, provides an example of the environmental and social challenges associated with the use of non-renewable resources in the context of small island countries threatened by coastal erosion and climate change. In many small Pacific island countries, the availability of construction materials is limited, with the majority mined from beaches and coastal reefs in an unsustainable manner. Growing demand for construction aggregates is resulting in more widespread sand mining by communities along vulnerable sections of exposed beach and reefs. This has serious consequences for coastal erosion and impacts on reef ecosystem processes, consequences that cannot be easily managed. Construction materials are also in high demand for infrastructure projects which are financed in part with support from international development agencies and donors. This paper reviews the various challenges and risks that aggregate mining poses to reefs, fish, and the coastal health of South Tarawa and argues that the long term consequences from ad hoc beach/reef mining over large areas are likely to be far greater than the impacts associated with environmentally sustainable, organized extraction. The paper concludes with policy recommendations that are also relevant for neighbouring island countries facing similar challenges. © 2014 United Nations.

Tariq M.I.,University of Sargodha | Afzal S.,Pakistan Standards and Quality Control Authority | Shahzad F.,Environmental Consultant
Journal of Environmental Monitoring | Year: 2010

Information regarding pesticide mobility is critical for the evaluation of pesticide management practices. For this purpose, lysimetric studies were conducted to develop assessment schemes to protect groundwater from unacceptable effects caused by pesticide use. By using these studies, specific monitoring actions and prevention measures for the protection of waters can be studied, and the results thus obtained can provide the local authorities and the decision makers with an identification tool for demarcating risk areas. Pesticide residues were found at the bottom of lysimeters in the following pattern i.e., 1.52 > 2.1 > 2.74 m which could represent an "index of risk" for groundwater pollution. Regressions built for carbofuran and monocrotophos against watertable depths showed a decreasing trend of pesticide in higher watertable treatments. These findings support the existence of a significant role for chromatographic flow in sandy texture soil. Moreover, the higher values of pesticide residue at the bottom of lysimeters reflect that chromatographic flow as well as preferential flow pattern prevails during higher precipitation events. The precipitation received during the study was higher than the 10 year average and can be considered relatively as a worst case scenario. Finally, the authors have recommended a standardized pesticide monitoring scheme for groundwater in accordance with the already validated generic schemes in developed countries. © 2010 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

Knight J.,Environmental Consultant | Rovida C.,University of Konstanz
Altex | Year: 2014

The proposed Safe Cosmetics and Personal Care Products Act of 2013 calls for a new evaluation program for cosmetic ingredients in the US, with the new assessments initially dependent on expanded animal testing. This paper considers possible testing scenarios under the proposed Act and estimates the number of test animals and cost under each scenario. It focuses on the impact for the first 10 years of testing, the period of greatest impact on animals and costs. The analysis suggests the first 10 years of testing under the Act could evaluate, at most, about 50% of ingredients used in cosmetics. Testing during this period would cost about $ 1.7-$ 9 billion and 1-11.5 million animals. By test year 10, alternative, high-throughput test methods under development are expected to be available, replacing animal testing and allowing rapid evaluation of all ingredients. Given the high cost in dollars and animal lives of the first 10 years for only about half of ingredients, a better choice may be to accelerate development of high-throughput methods. This would allow evaluation of 100% of cosmetic ingredients before year 10 at lower cost and without animal testing.

Mansourian S.,Environmental Consultant | Vallauri D.,WWF France
Environmental Management | Year: 2014

Forest restoration at large scales, or landscapes, is an approach that is increasingly relevant to the practice of environmental conservation. However, implementation remains a challenge; poor monitoring and lesson learning lead to similar mistakes being repeated. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), the global conservation organization, recently took stock of its 10 years of implementation of forest landscape restoration. A significant body of knowledge has emerged from the work of the WWF and its partners in the different countries, which can be of use to the wider conservation community, but for this to happen, lessons need to be systematically collected and disseminated in a coherent manner to the broader conservation and development communities and, importantly, to policy makers. We use this review of the WWF's experiences and compare and contrast it with other relevant and recent literature to highlight 11 important lessons for future large-scale forest restoration interventions. These lessons are presented using a stepwise approach to the restoration of forested landscapes. We identify the need for long-term commitment and funding, and a concerted and collaborative effort for successful forest landscape restoration. Our review highlights that monitoring impact within landscape-scale forest restoration remains inadequate. We conclude that forest restoration within landscapes is a challenging yet important proposition that has a real but undervalued place in environmental conservation in the twenty-first century. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Lacko P.,Gannett Fleming Inc. | Ayyaswami A.,Environmental Consultant
Remediation | Year: 2016

This is the fourth in a series of papers through which the authors demonstrate how numerical transport modeling can assist the remediation design engineer in predicting the progress of enhanced reductive dechlorination remediation expected in the field. The first two papers dealt with the hydraulics of delivery and preliminary understanding of substrate-limited degradation. The third paper compared a simulated substrate-limited degradation progress to some early results measured at a site. Based on that comparison, conclusions were drawn regarding the differences in degradation rates between a field situation and laboratory studies, and inferences were made about the modeling steps needed to aid in designing enhanced reductive dechlorination systems. Since the presentation of those results, additional rounds of data have been obtained from the field, encompassing a more substantial range of degradation history. In this paper, the authors compare those results with the simulated predictions and present an illustrative example of design modification using the model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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