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Islam M.N.,Environmental Assessment Research Institute | Jung H.-Y.,Chonnam National University | Park J.-H.,Environmental Assessment Research Institute | Park J.-H.,Chonnam National University
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2015

Co-contamination of explosives and heavy metals (HMs) in soil, particularly army shooting range soil, has received increasing environmental concern due to toxicity and risks to ecological systems. In this study, a subcritical water (SCW) extraction process was used to remediate the explosives-plus-HMs-co-contaminated soil. A quantitative evaluation of explosives in the treated soil, compared with untreated soil, was applied to assess explosive removal. The immobilization of HMs was assessed by toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, and by investigating the migration of HMs fractions. The environmental risk of HMs in the soil residue was assessed according to the risk assessment code (RAC) and ecological risk indices (Er and RI). The results indicated that SCW treatment could eliminate the explosives, >99%, during the remediation, while the HM was effectively immobilized. The effect of water temperature on reducing the explosives and the risk of HMs in soil was observed. A marked increase in the non-bioavailable concentration of each HM was observed, and the leaching rate of HMs was decreased by 70-97% after SCW treatment at 250 °C, showing the effective immobilization of HMs. According to the RAC or RI, each tested HM showed no or low risk to the environment after treatment. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Nguyen X.P.,Chonnam National University | Nguyen X.P.,Research Institute for Marine Fisheries | Jho H.,Chonnam National University | Jeong Y.-J.,Chonnam National University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Engineering Research | Year: 2015

In this study, the characteristics as well as the maturity and stability of chicken manure collected from nine chicken farms in South Koreaduring the summer and winter seasons of 2014 are evaluated. The physicochemical parameter values of the manure, such as BOD, NO3-N and PO4-P etc. were determined using the Korea Standard test Method, HPLC, and APHA standard methods. The results showed that the alkalinity content and COD concentration in winter chicken manure were higher than those of summer chicken manure. The moisture content of summer manure was positively correlated with almost all of the other parameters of the manure, whereas it was negatively correlated with almost all of the other parameters in the winter manure. According to the criterion of C/N ratio, chicken manure indicated good quality compost. However, composted chicken manure showed immature and unstable compost when considering the criteria of the NH4-N/NO3-N ratio and NH4-N concentrations. © 2015 Korean Society of Environmental Engineers. Source

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