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David M.,Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory | Ramesh H.,Karnatak University | Patil V.K.,Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory | Marigoudar S.R.,Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory | Chebbi S.G.,Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory
Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry | Year: 2010

Carp fingerlings exposed to a sublethal concentration (0.5 mg L -1) of sodium cyanide showed a steady decrement over a 7-day period in respiratory rate, rise in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and fall in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities followed by variations in lactic and pyruvate levels. Changes in these enzyme activities might be due to impaired oxidative metabolism and severe cellular damage leading to the release of these enzymes. Decline in the activities of SDH and LDH clearly represents a shift from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism as evidenced by elevated lactate and decline in pyruvate levels. The shift to anaerobic metabolism is also reflected by severe drop in the respiratory rate of the fish. This may be a consequence of the blockage of electron transfer from cytochrome c oxidase to molecular oxygen, thus ceasing cellular respiration and it can lead to cellular hypoxia even in the presence of normal hemoglobin oxygenation. Hence, we indirectly reconfirm the inhibition of oxidative metabolism by sodium cyanide. Alterations in behavioral pattern induced by sublethal sodium cyanide exposure may be due to the combination of cytotoxic hypoxia with lactate acidosis, which depresses the central nervous system (CNS); as the brain is the most sensitive site to anoxia, it results in impaired CNS function. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.

Shivaraj,Karnataka University Research Laboratory | David M.,Environmental and Molecular Toxicology Laboratory | Ravi K.B.,Karnatak Science College
International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences | Year: 2011

Effect of a combination of pesticides, viz. Delatmethrin 1% + Chlorpyriphos 35% EC, has been studied on the reproductive toxicology of wistar rats. Male rats were exposed to test substance at the dose level of 15, 25, and 35-mg/kg body weight for a consecutive period of 20 weeks. At the end of the experimental period, all the animals were subjected for necropsy, sperm parameters such as motility, testicular sperm-head count, epididymal count and morphological evaluations were carried out. The treatment is reported to induce significant alteration in sperm motility, testicular sperm-head count and epididymal count at 35 mg/kg body weight dose group. Results suggested that the pesticide combination, viz (Delatmethrin 1% + Chlorpyriphos 35% EC) used in the present investigation inhibit the sperm production and motility either directly or indirectly.

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