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Dolinar M.,Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia | Vidrih B.,Knauf insulation d.d. | Kajfez-Bogataj L.,University of Ljubljana | Medved S.,University of Ljubljana
Physics and Chemistry of the Earth

In the last 3 years in Slovenia we experienced extremely hot summers and demand for cooling the buildings have risen significantly. Since climate change scenarios predict higher temperatures for the whole country and for all seasons, we expect that energy demand for heating would decrease while demand for cooling would increase. An analysis for building with permitted energy demand and for low-energy demand building in two typical urban climates in Slovenia was performed. The transient systems simulation program (TRNSYS) was used for simulation of the indoor conditions and the energy use for heating and cooling. Climate change scenarios were presented in form of "future" Test Reference Years (TRY). The time series of hourly data for all meteorological variables for different scenarios were chosen from actual measurements, using the method of highest likelihood. The climate change scenarios predicted temperature rise (+1 °C and +3 °C) and solar radiation increase (+3% and +6%). With the selection of these scenarios we covered the spectra of possible predicted climate changes in Slovenia. The results show that energy use for heating would decrease from 16% to 25% (depends on the intensity of warming) in subalpine region, while in Mediterranean region the rate of change would not be significant. In summer time we would need up to six times more energy for cooling in subalpine region and approximately two times more in Mediterranean region. low-energy building proved to be very economical in wintertime while on average higher energy consumption for cooling is expected in those buildings in summertime. In case of significant warmer and more solar energy intensive climate, the good isolated buildings are more efficient than standard buildings. TRY proved not to be efficient for studying extreme conditions like installed power of the cooling system. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Trsic I.,Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia | Runovc F.,University of Ljubljana
Acta Geotechnica Slovenica

The reliability of a horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratio (HVSR) curve depends on the results obtained by a verified seismological system. Seismic microzonation provides the basis for a site-specific risk analysis and it can be evaluated using the microtremor HVSR method, where the data are recorded using modern seismological systems. Changes in the transfer function of seismological systems affect the HVSR curve and, consequently also its interpretation, if these changes are not detected and taken into consideration while performing the microtremor spectral calculations. The reliability of the seismic microzonation performed by such a procedure becomes questionable. An algorithm is developed with a two references system, where the influence of the transfer function on the HVSR curve by the tested system can be evaluated without any a-priori knowledge regarding the transfer functions of any of the systems. This approach is applied to a Lennartz Le-3D/5s seismometer and to a TROMINO seismological system, where two Streckeisen STS2 seismometers are used as the reference systems. Copyright © 2014, AGS. Source

Ceglar A.,University of Ljubljana | Crepinsek Z.,University of Ljubljana | Kajfez-Bogataj L.,University of Ljubljana | Pogacar T.,Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology

The main objective of our study was to use Bayesian methods to quantify the uncertainties related to phenological development of maize (Zea mays L.) under various climate conditions. For this purpose, five different phenological methods were implemented in the dynamic crop growth model, which was subsequently optimized, using the data acquired at three different locations in Slovenia. The sensitivity analysis of the crop model was performed in order to find the set of most influential physiological parameters. Subsequent Bayesian model comparison was used in order to quantify the impact of phenological method selection on the final maize yield. The results revealed the importance of using an appropriate phenological method in order to correctly estimate the duration of the growing season and yield, when used within dynamic crop model. The limitations of the phenological methods used in this study are discussed. The selection of phenological method itself did not have a significant influence on the yield estimation, except in years with high temperatures and limiting water conditions. This raises the concern that inaccurate simulation of phenological development may increase the uncertainties of impact assessment on crop yield where crop models are fed with future climate projections. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Groselj D.,Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia | Bojkovski J.,University of Ljubljana
International Journal of Thermophysics

Interlaboratory comparisons serve as tools for assessment of measurement results performed by calibration laboratories in the relevant field of measurement. They are effective means to demonstrate technical competence of the participant and are used as a technical base for accreditation. However, in the network of meteorological services calibration laboratories, comparisons among laboratories are still rare. Some laboratories are still not evaluating measurement uncertainty, thus causing problems when comparing meteorological data from different countries. The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (EARS), serving in the frame of the World Meteorological Organization as a Regional Instrument Centre, has organized a round-robin comparison of calibration laboratories of meteorological services in the southeastern part of Europe using instruments for temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Each participant laboratory had to calibrate a set of instruments at defined calibration points, to evaluate the measurement uncertainty (if possible), and to report the results. EARS RIC invited the National Hydrometeorological Services in the southeastern part of Europe to take part in the intercomparison. In addition, the Laboratory of Metrology and Quality (MIRS/UL-FE/LMK), which holds the Slovenian national standard for temperature and relative humidity, was also invited to participate in the comparison and in the data analysis. Results from MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and EARS were used to calculate the temperature and humidity comparison reference values, while the EARS results were taken as reference values for barometric pressure. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Vreca P.,Jozef Stefan Institute | Muri G.,Slovenian National Institute of Biology | Muri G.,Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia

Sediment organic matter (OM) and its stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes were studied in 12 Slovenian mountain lakes in the Julian Alps. The lakes have different catchment areas and display a range of trophic states. Surface sediment atomic C/N ratios ranged from 8.4 to 13.2. Based on these C/N ratios, we concluded that autochthonous OM dominates in these lakes and constitutes approximately 65-92% of the total OM. Higher contributions of autochthonous OM sources were observed in lakes above the tree line. Relatively constant C/N ratios in the deeper sediments suggest that degradation processes are most intense in the upper few centimetres of the sediments and/or that remaining OM is relatively resistant to further degradation. Surface sediment δ13C and δ15N values ranged from -36.1 to -14.1‰ and from -5.2 to +1.1‰, respectively. In sediment cores from seven lakes, higher δ13C and lower δ15N values characterize oligotrophic lakes situated above the tree line, whereas the reverse is true for eutrophic lakes below the tree line that are also exposed to more anthropogenic impact. Carbon and nitrogen biogeochemical cycling differs considerably among the lakes. Stratigraphic shifts in carbon, total nitrogen, C/N ratios and stable C and N isotopes in cores record changes in inputs, and hence water column processes, as well as alterations in loading to the lakes. The stratigraphic variations are also the result of post-depositional diagenetic changes in the upper few centimetres of sediment. All the lakes show impacts from recent increases in atmospheric deposition of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. Application of sediment OM analysis thus proved to be useful to reconstruct paleoecological changes in sensitive mountain lake ecosystems that are either natural and/or anthropogenically derived. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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