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Ray J.G.,Environment Science Research Laboratory | George J.,St Dominics College
International Journal of Applied Environmental Sciences | Year: 2010

Lead contamination in roadside soil is a global phenomenon, but Lead accumulation in roadside herbs is least reported. Lead accumulating species are rare; the success of phytoremediation of Lead contaminated soils depends on the discovery of new Lead hyper accumulators. In this context, Lead in the shoots and roots of about nineteen tolerant roadside herbs growing in soils close to one meter margin from the tar-edge of two busy roadsides in Kerala in South India was examined. Soil and plant samples were collected for two years from different sites differing in the degree of contamination. Lead in the shoots of all plant species and also in the roots of grasses, and in the soils where the plants grew was assessed, compared and statistically analyzed. The roadside soils were found moderately Lead contaminated. All the species were found accumulating Lead in shoots or roots in significantly different amounts. Positive correlations were found between Lead in plants and that in the different soils where they grew and in some of the species, the correlations were very strong. Lead in the shoots of Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm., and that in the roots of Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., was found in quantities higher than the quantity of the metal in the soil. © Research India Publications. Source


Ray J.G.,Environment Science Research Laboratory | Valsalakumar N.,Environment Science Research Laboratory
Journal of Plant Nutrition | Year: 2010

Three species of AM fungi, Glomus mosseae, Glomus microcarpum, Gigaspora margarita and a fungus that mimics the properties of AM fungi, Piriformospora indica, were tested on green gram [Phaseolus aureus Roxb. ( = Vigna radiata var. radiata)] individually and in combination with Rhizobium for their influence on growth and seed yield. The growth parameters analyzed were dry biomass, total leaf area, total chlorophyll,% root colonization, nodulation, and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium (NPK) content of leaf tissues using standard methodologies. Glomus microcarpum was found to be more effective in promoting biomass and seed yield when applied alone. But in combination with Rhizobium, G. mosseae enabled highest production of biomass. The tissue nitrogen content was high in G. microcarpum-Rhizobium dual inoculated plants. Many other characteristics were high in dual inoculation, while tissue P was high in individual treatment of G. mosseae. Piriformospora indica was not found to be a good synergist on green gram. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


Ray J.G.,Environment Science Research Laboratory | Thomas B.T.,Environment Science Research Laboratory
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2012

Influences of three different vegetations (forests, teak plantation, and rubber plantation) on certain soil fertility parameters of Oxic Dystrustepts in the Western Ghats of southern India are compared. Soil samples collected from 10 different sites under each of the three vegetations in different seasons are analyzed. Soil sampling and physicochemical analyses were carried out as per standard methods. Significant variation was found in soil parameters over the plantations and forest in different seasons. Even though the rubber plantations received chemical fertilizers during two seasons, the average plant-available phosphorus alone exceeded in this soil than that in the forest soil. Specific influence of vegetations on fertility parameters in Oxic Dystrustepts could be traced. The influence of rubber plantations on soil fertility was more negative than that of teak plantations. Vegetational influence on soil fertility characteristics has applications in the development of sustainable agro-ecosystems in biodiversity-rich tropics. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Ray J.G.,Environment Science Research Laboratory | George K.J.,Environment Science Research Laboratory
Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2010

In order to assess the role of root CEC on the accumulation of Calcium in roots or shoots, pot-culture experiments with wild grasses was carried out. The seven species of grasses used were Sporobolus diander (L.), Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn, Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. Ex Roem and Schult, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers., Panicum repens Jacq, Stenotaphrum dimidiatum (L.) Brongn. and Chloris barbeta Sw. These grasses were significantly different in their root cation exchange capacity (4.6 to 12.3 C mol (P +) kg -1; p<0.05) as well as in their average root biomass (10 to 121 g per plant; p<0.05)/shoot biomass (4 to 60 g per plant; p<0.05) while growing in same environments. Four treatments of calcium (0.20, 0.25, 0.30 and 0.37 gkg -1 of soil) were given to all these species against a control; each treatment was given in four split doses with a gap of about 10 days in between. Calcium in the roots and shoots of these grasses was assessed at the end of the experimental cultures. Negative correlations were found between average Ca accumulations in plant tissues and root cation exchange capacity at all treatment levels. The correlation patterns between root cation exchange capacity and Ca in roots and that in shoots were quite distinct. Experiments of these kinds can reveal exact relationships between root characteristics and mineral accumulations in plants, which will have applications in agriculture involving mixed crops. © 2010 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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