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Wolverhampton, United Kingdom

Yadav R.D.,Ballarpur Industries Ltd BILT | Chaudhry S.,Kurukshetra University | Gupta S.,Environment Group
Journal of Environmental Biology

Four different strategies of pulping and bleaching were carried out to develop alternative mechanistic ecoenvironmental friendly approaches and generated effluent was characterised. Strategy-I included Phanerochaete sp. fungal pretreatment followed by conventional bleaching, whereas in strategy-II, fungal pretreatment was followed by enzyme xylanase aided bleaching. Strategy-III also included xylanase supplement but without prior fungal pretreatment. Chemically driven pulping and bleaching was the IV strategy. Conventional CDEOPD1D2 sequence of bleaching was used for strategy-I and IV whereas XCDEOPD1D2 sequence was applied to strategy-II and III. Strategy-II was responsible for 27.5% reduction in Kappa no. whereas the maximum (27.5%) reduction in refining energy was observed with strategy-II. Biobleaching strategies- II and III were helpful in saving 37.3 and 20.3% of elemental chlorine (Cl2) and 30.8 and 23.1% of chlorine dioxide (ClO-2), respectively. In comparison to control (strategy-IV), strategy II resulted in maximum pollution load reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), color and adsorbable organic halides (AOX) upto 57, 60, 30 and 43.6%, respectively. © 2012 Triveni Enterprises. Source

Collins A.L.,Environment Group | Walling D.E.,University of Exeter | Webb L.,UK Environment Agency | King P.,UK Environment Agency

Sediment fingerprinting techniques provide a means of assembling valuable reliable information on the principal sources of sediment problems at catchment scale. However, there is a need to refine existing approaches to take account of a variety of sources of uncertainty and to incorporate prior information. To address this need, a modified mass balance model incorporating a Monte Carlo approach for representing the uncertainty surrounding source and sediment sampling, as well as weightings to take account of the within-source variability and discriminatory power of individual tracer properties and prior information on bank erosion, was used to apportion recent sediment sources in sub-catchments of the Somerset Levels, south west UK. Sensitivity tests confirmed that the precision of source apportionment was improved by incorporating the weightings and prior information into the mixing model. Estimates of the overall mean contributions from individual source types, bounded by 95% confidence limits, were assessed to be 42 ± 2% (pasture topsoils), 22 ± 2% (cultivated topsoils), 22 ± 1% (channel banks/subsurface sources), 12 ± 2% (damaged road verges) and 2 ± 1% (STWs). Respective estimates of net sediment delivery to watercourses, provided by integrating the source ascription results with estimated sediment yield ranges and sub-catchment or land use areas, ranged between 33-829 kg ha- 1 yr- 1, 30-1995 kg ha- 1 yr- 1, 2-315 kg ha- 1 yr- 1, 0-217 kg ha- 1 yr- 1, and 0-28 kg ha- 1 yr- 1. Sediment fingerprinting should always include uncertainty analysis but on the understanding that the latter will be conditional on the assumptions used. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Vincent A.C.J.,University of British Columbia | Sadovy de Mitcheson Y.J.,University of Hong Kong | Fowler S.L.,IUCN Shark Specialist Group | Lieberman S.,Environment Group
Fish and Fisheries

All possible tools need to be marshalled for marine fish conservation. Yet controversy has swirled around what role, if any, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) should play for marine fishes. This paper analyses the relevance and applicability of CITES as a complementary tool for fisheries management. CITES currently regulates the international trade of very few marine fish species, by listing them in its Appendices. After the first meeting of the Parties (member countries) in 1976, no new marine fish taxa were added to the CITES Appendices until 2002, when Parties agreed to act to ensure sustainable and legal international trade in seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) and two species of sharks. Progress has continued haltingly, adding only one more shark, humphead wrasse (Cheilinus undulatus) and sawfishes by 2012. Parties voice concerns that may include inadequate data, applicability of CITES listing criteria, roles of national fisheries agencies, enforcement challenges, CITES' lack of experience with marine fishes, and/or identification and by-catch problems. A common query is the relationship between CITES and other international agreements. Yet all these arguments can be countered, revealing CITES to be a relevant and appropriate instrument for promoting sound marine fisheries management. In reality, Parties that cannot implement CITES effectively for marine fishes will also need help to manage their fisheries sustainably. CITES action complements and supports other international fisheries management measures. As CITES engages with more marine fish listings, there will be greater scope to analyse its effectiveness in supporting different taxa in different contexts. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Collins A.L.,Environment Group | Yusheng Z.,Environment Group | Walling D.E.,University of Exeter | Kevin B.,Partrac Ltd.
IAHS-AISH Publication

A novel tracing framework combining conventional sediment source fingerprinting and a dual signature tracking method has recently been tested in a grassland catchment in Cumbria, northwest England, UK. The former component of the framework provided information on the relative importance of generic sediment sources characterised as pasture (75±1%) or arable (9±1%) surface soils, damaged road verges (6±1%), channel banks/subsurface sources (9±1%) and the local sewage treatment works (1±1%), whereas the latter component was used to apportion sediment loss from grass fields between poached gateways (1±1%) or cattle tracks (28±1%) and wider areas of general pugging and poaching damage (46±1%). Uncertainty and prior information are explicitly recognised by the novel source tracing framework. Copyright © 2010 IAHS Press. Source

Collins A.L.,Environment Group | Walling D.E.,University of Exeter | McMellin G.K.,UK Environment Agency | Zhang Y.,Environment Group | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management

The low productivity of salmonids in many river systems across the UK is testament to their intolerance of water quality perturbations including those associated with excessive sedimentation. Catchment and fishery managers concerned with combating such issues require reliable information on the key sources of the sediment problem to target management and on the efficacy of the mitigation options being implemented. In recognition of the latter requirement, a pre- and post-remediation sediment sourcing survey was used to examine the potential for using sediment tracing to assemble preliminary information on the efficacy of riparian fencing schemes for reducing sediment contributions from eroding channel banks to salmonid spawning gravels in the Rivers Camel, Fal, Lynher, Plym, Tamar and Tavy in the south west of the UK. Respective estimates of the overall mean proportion (±95% confidence limits) of the interstitial sediment input to salmonid spawning gravels originating from eroding channel banks during the pre- (1999-2000) and post-remediation (2008-2009) study periods were computed at 97 ± 1% vs 69 ± 1%, 94 ± 1% vs 91 ± 1%, 12 ± 1% vs 10 ± 1%, 92 ± 1% vs 34 ± 1%, 31 ± 1% vs 16 ± 1% and 90 ± 1% vs 66 ± 1%. Whilst the study demonstrates the potential utility of the fingerprinting approach for helping to assemble important information on the efficacy of bank fencing as a sediment source control measure at catchment scale, a number of limitations of the work and some suggestions for improving experimental design are discussed. Equivalent data are urgently required for many sediment mitigation options to help inform the development of water quality policy packages designed to protect aquatic ecosystems. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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