Gatineau, Canada
Gatineau, Canada

Environment Canada , legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act , is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources. The powers, duties and functions of the Minister of the Environment extend to and include matters relating to: "preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including water, air, soil, flora and fauna; conserve Canada's renewable resources; conserve and protect Canada's water resources;forecast daily weather conditions and warnings, and provide detailed meteorological information to all of Canada; enforce rules relating to boundary waters; and coordinate environmental policies and programs for the federal government."Its ministerial headquarters is located in les Terrasses de la Chaudière, Gatineau, Quebec.Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act , Environment Canada became the lead federal department to ensure the cleanup of hazardous waste and oil spills for which the government is responsible, and to provide technical assistance to other jurisdictions and the private sector as required. The department is also responsible for international environmental issues . CEPA was the central piece of Canada's environmental legislation but was replaced when budget implementation bill entered into effect in June 2012.Under the Constitution of Canada, responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal government and provincial/territorial governments. For example, provincial governments have primary authority for resource management including permitting industrial waste discharges . The federal government is responsible for the management of toxic substances in the country . Environment Canada provides stewardship of the Environmental Choice Program, which provides consumers with an eco-labelling for products manufactured within Canada or services that meet international label standards of Global Ecolabelling Network.Environment Canada continues to undergo a structural transformation to centralize authority and decision-making, and to standardize policy implementation. Wikipedia.


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Boer G.J.,Environment Canada
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2011

The result in climate simulations, supported in the observation-based record, is that the ratio φ = TL/TO of land-average to ocean-average temperature change is greater than one and varies comparatively modestly as climate changes. This is investigated in results from the CMIP3 data archive of climate change simulations following the B1 and more strongly forced A1B scenarios as well as in 2×CO2 integrations. The associated precipitation ratio ψ = PL/PO is also considered briefly. The behaviour of φ is analyzed in terms of a forcing-response view of the energy balance over land and ocean regions. The analysis indicates that the value of φ > 1 is not maintained by separate local balances over land and ocean but by an energetic balance that also involves a change in transport between the regions. The transport change does not restrain the land warming by exporting energy to the ocean region but, rather, the reverse. The anomalous transport is from the ocean to the land region even though the ocean warms less than the land does. Feedbacks in the ocean region, especially in the equatorial Pacific, do not sufficiently counteract the forcing and the result is an excess of energy that is transported to the land. The land warms in order to radiate away both the energy from the forcing over land but also the extra energy imported from the ocean region, thereby maintaining φ > 1. This situation can be understood to parallel the SST-forced case in model studies where φ > 1 despite the forcing being confined to the ocean area. The climate system is effective in redistributing forcing so that it is the local feedbacks, rather than the pattern of the forcing, that determine the temperature response. Land and ocean averaged quantities and budgets behave in a consistent manner to provide a simplified representation of the changes in temperature and energetic processes that are occurring. The geographical distributions of the terms do not, however, display a strong land/ocean demarcation. The land/ocean average budgets and balances are the residual of processes that vary considerably within the land and ocean boundaries. © 2011 Her Majesty the Queen in the Right of Canada as represented by the Minister of the Environment.


Boer G.J.,Environment Canada
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2011

Decadal prediction of the coupled climate system is potentially possible given enough information and knowledge. Predictability will reside in both externally forced and in long timescale internally generated variability. The "potential predictability" investigated here is characterized by the fraction of the total variability accounted for by these two components in the presence of short-timescale unpredictable "noise" variability. Potential predictability is not a classical measure of predictability nor a measure of forecast skill but it does identify regions where long timescale variability is an appreciable fraction of the total and hence where prediction on these scale may be possible. A multi-model estimate of the potential predictability variance fraction (ppvf) as it evolves through the first part of the twenty-first century is obtained using simulation data from the CMIP3 archive. Two estimates of potential predictability are used which depend on the treatment of the forced component. The multi-decadal estimate considers the magnitude of the forced component as the change from the beginning of the century and so becomes largely a measure of climate change as the century progresses. The next-decade estimate considers the change in the forced component from the past decade and so is more pertinent to an actual forecast for the next decade. Long timescale internally generated variability provides additional potential predictability beyond that of the forced component. The ppvf may be expressed in terms of a signal-to-noise ratio and takes on values between 0 and 1. The largest values of the ppvf for temperature are found over tropical and mid-latitude oceans, with the exception of the equatorial Pacific, and some but not all tropical land areas. Overall the potential predictability for temperature generally declines with latitude and is relatively low over mid- to high-latitude land. Potential predictability for precipitation is generally low and due almost entirely to the forced component and then mainly at high latitudes. To the extent that the multi-model ppvf reflects both the behaviour of the actual climate system and the possibility of decadal prediction, the results give some indication as to where and to what extent decadal forecasts might be possible. © 2010 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada.


Neu T.R.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Lawrence J.R.,Environment Canada
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Confocal laser scanning microscopy has become a standard technique for the investigation of hydrated interfacial microbial communities at the microscale. Multiphoton and spinning-disk microscopes provide new options for in situ imaging. Progress has been made in imaging structural aspects as well as interactions and processes. Advanced fluorescence techniques such as lifetime imaging and correlation spectroscopy are also available. Newly developed target-specific probes allow investigation of new aspects of microbial communities. Several new laser-based techniques are available including nanoscopy and mesoscale techniques. Nanoscopy techniques offer access to unprecedented resolution of hydrated microbiological samples at the scale of fluorescent gene products and macromolecules. Mesoscale approaches are important to address larger features and statistical issues of microbiological samples. This review presents the state of the art in situ biofilm imaging and assesses the pros and cons of laser-based imaging techniques in combination with a variety of sensor types at different scales. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Buehner M.,Environment Canada
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2012

In this study, several approaches for estimating background-error covariances from an ensemble of error realizations are examined, including a new spatial/spectral localization approach. The new approach shares aspects of both the spatial localization and wavelet-diagonal approaches. This approach also enables the use of different spatial localization functions for the covariances associated with each of a set of overlapping horizontal wavenumber bands. The use of such scale-dependent spatial localization (more severe localization for small horizontal scales) is shown to reduce the error in spatial correlation estimates. A comparison of spatial localization, spatial/spectral localization, and wavelet-diagonal approaches shows that the approach resulting in the lowest estimation error depends on the ensemble size. For a relatively large ensemble (48 members), the spatial/spectral localization approach produces the lowest error. When using a much smaller ensemble (12 members), the wavelet-diagonal approach results in the lowest error. Qualitatively, the horizontal correlation functions resulting from spatial/spectral localization appear smoother and less noisy than those from spatial localization, but preserve more of the heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of the raw sample correlations than the wavelet-diagonal approach. The new spatial/spectral localization approach is compared with spatial localization in a set of 1-month three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVar) experiments using a full set of real atmospheric observations. Preliminary results show that spatial/spectral localization provides a nearly similar forecast quality, and in some regions improved forecast quality, as spatial localization while using an ensemble of half the size (48 vs 96 members). © 2012 American Meteorological Society.


Dempsey F.,Environment Canada
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

Frank Dempsey suggests that various remote-sensing, analysis, and forecasting methods allow anticipation of the harmful increases in airborne fine particulates and ozone pollution caused by the plumes of distant fires. The recognition and forecasting of trajectories of smoke plumes from active fire will be beneficial for anticipating and predicting potential effects on air quality in eastern North America. A case highlights a case where distinct increases in concentrations of fine particles and O3closely correlated with the plume from a distant wildfire, have been observed in routinely collected air quality observations in Ontario's air monitoring network. The specific data that indicate detection of smoke from northern sources are the air quality observations from various locations in southern Ontario. Several more examples have also been presented to demonstrate the benefits of recognition and forecasting of trajectories of smoke plumes in anticipating and predicting potential effects on air quality.


Reiner E.J.,Environment Canada
Mass Spectrometry Reviews | Year: 2010

The analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, polychlorinated biphenyls, and other related compounds requires complex sample preparation and analytical procedures using highly sensitive and selective stateof-the-art instrumentation to meet very stringent data quality objectives. The analytical procedures (extraction, sample preparation), instrumentation (chromatographic separation and detection by mass spectrometry) and screening techniques for the determination of dioxins, furans, dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls and related compounds with a focus on new approaches and alternate techniques to standard regulatory methods are reviewed. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.,.


Patent
Environment Canada | Date: 2016-06-13

A process for isolating at least one target compound, such as manool, geranyl linalool, ethyl guaiacol, eugenol, veratraldehyde, squalene, terpin, cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol and dehydroabietic acid, from biomass, the process including steps of: obtaining a condensate from a recovery evaporator, a reverse osmosis retentate of a condensate of a pulp and paper mill, or both, the condensate, retentate or both being substantially free of higher molecular weight (approximately >1000 Da) cellulose and/or lignin and/or lignin-derived material; optionally pH adjusting and filtering the condensate to collect insoluble material; extracting the condensate, the collected insoluble material, or both, with solid phase extraction (SPE), liquid-liquid extraction or solid-liquid extraction to produce an extract containing the at least one target compound; and optionally purifying the extract containing the at least one target compound by thermal fractionation, chromatographic separation, recrystallization ion exchange, chelation, adsorption/desorption, lyophilization and sublimation or combinations thereof. The method is particularly useful for isolating the target compounds from wastewaters produced in a kraft pulp and paper mill, especially from recovery evaporator condensates produced during the treatment of black liquor.


Patent
Environment Canada | Date: 2015-03-05

A process for isolating at least one target compound, such as manool, geranyl linalool, ethyl guaiacol, eugenol, veratraldehyde, squalene, terpin, cholesterol, beta-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, stigmastenol and dehydroabietic acid, from biomass, the process including steps of: obtaining a condensate from a recovery evaporator, a reverse osmosis retentate of a condensate of a pulp and paper mill, or both, the condensate, retentate or both being substantially free of higher molecular weight (approximately >1000 Da) cellulose and/or lignin and/or lignin-derived material; optionally pH adjusting and filtering the condensate to collect insoluble material; extracting the condensate, the collected insoluble material, or both, with solid phase extraction (SPE), liquid-liquid extraction or solid-liquid extraction to produce an extract containing the at least one target compound; and optionally purifying the extract containing the at least one target compound by thermal fractionation, chromatographic separation, recrystallization ion exchange, chelation, adsorption/desorption, lyophilization and sublimation or combinations thereof. The method is particularly useful for isolating the target compounds from wastewaters produced in a kraft pulp and paper mill, especially from recovery evaporator condensates produced during the treatment of black liquor.


Patent
Environment Canada | Date: 2015-02-06

Provided are decontamination compositions that include an ammonium compound, a ferric/ferrocyanide compound, a polyaminocarboxylic acid compound and a polycarboxylic compound. Depending on the mode of application, the compositions can be used as foams, liquids, gels, strippable coatings, mists, or in other forms. Also provided are kits that include such components in whole or in part along with an optional dispersing device for use of the decontamination composition.


Patent
Environment Canada | Date: 2014-09-11

A passive dry deposit (Pas-DD) air sampling device and method for sampling volatile, semi-volatile, or particulate matter in air. The Pas-DD device comprises a top cover plate, a bottom plate connected to and spaced a distance apart from the top cover plate, and at least one sampling media supported by the bottom plate and positioned within the device in an orientation accessible for collecting particles in the environment. The top cover plate and bottom plate may be oriented in parallel, and spaced apart a distanced that can be optimized for air sampling a broad size-range of depositing particles. The passive air sampling device and method disclosed are particularly useful for sampling air in regions where access to electricity is difficult, and for estimating atmospheric loadings of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other semi-volatile compounds.

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