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Gatineau, Canada

Environment Canada , legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act , is the department of the Government of Canada with responsibility for coordinating environmental policies and programs as well as preserving and enhancing the natural environment and renewable resources. The powers, duties and functions of the Minister of the Environment extend to and include matters relating to: "preserve and enhance the quality of the natural environment, including water, air, soil, flora and fauna; conserve Canada's renewable resources; conserve and protect Canada's water resources;forecast daily weather conditions and warnings, and provide detailed meteorological information to all of Canada; enforce rules relating to boundary waters; and coordinate environmental policies and programs for the federal government."Its ministerial headquarters is located in les Terrasses de la Chaudière, Gatineau, Quebec.Under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act , Environment Canada became the lead federal department to ensure the cleanup of hazardous waste and oil spills for which the government is responsible, and to provide technical assistance to other jurisdictions and the private sector as required. The department is also responsible for international environmental issues . CEPA was the central piece of Canada's environmental legislation but was replaced when budget implementation bill entered into effect in June 2012.Under the Constitution of Canada, responsibility for environmental management in Canada is a shared responsibility between the federal government and provincial/territorial governments. For example, provincial governments have primary authority for resource management including permitting industrial waste discharges . The federal government is responsible for the management of toxic substances in the country . Environment Canada provides stewardship of the Environmental Choice Program, which provides consumers with an eco-labelling for products manufactured within Canada or services that meet international label standards of Global Ecolabelling Network.Environment Canada continues to undergo a structural transformation to centralize authority and decision-making, and to standardize policy implementation. Wikipedia.

Neu T.R.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research | Lawrence J.R.,Environment Canada
Trends in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Confocal laser scanning microscopy has become a standard technique for the investigation of hydrated interfacial microbial communities at the microscale. Multiphoton and spinning-disk microscopes provide new options for in situ imaging. Progress has been made in imaging structural aspects as well as interactions and processes. Advanced fluorescence techniques such as lifetime imaging and correlation spectroscopy are also available. Newly developed target-specific probes allow investigation of new aspects of microbial communities. Several new laser-based techniques are available including nanoscopy and mesoscale techniques. Nanoscopy techniques offer access to unprecedented resolution of hydrated microbiological samples at the scale of fluorescent gene products and macromolecules. Mesoscale approaches are important to address larger features and statistical issues of microbiological samples. This review presents the state of the art in situ biofilm imaging and assesses the pros and cons of laser-based imaging techniques in combination with a variety of sensor types at different scales. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Buehner M.,Environment Canada
Monthly Weather Review | Year: 2012

In this study, several approaches for estimating background-error covariances from an ensemble of error realizations are examined, including a new spatial/spectral localization approach. The new approach shares aspects of both the spatial localization and wavelet-diagonal approaches. This approach also enables the use of different spatial localization functions for the covariances associated with each of a set of overlapping horizontal wavenumber bands. The use of such scale-dependent spatial localization (more severe localization for small horizontal scales) is shown to reduce the error in spatial correlation estimates. A comparison of spatial localization, spatial/spectral localization, and wavelet-diagonal approaches shows that the approach resulting in the lowest estimation error depends on the ensemble size. For a relatively large ensemble (48 members), the spatial/spectral localization approach produces the lowest error. When using a much smaller ensemble (12 members), the wavelet-diagonal approach results in the lowest error. Qualitatively, the horizontal correlation functions resulting from spatial/spectral localization appear smoother and less noisy than those from spatial localization, but preserve more of the heterogeneous and anisotropic nature of the raw sample correlations than the wavelet-diagonal approach. The new spatial/spectral localization approach is compared with spatial localization in a set of 1-month three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVar) experiments using a full set of real atmospheric observations. Preliminary results show that spatial/spectral localization provides a nearly similar forecast quality, and in some regions improved forecast quality, as spatial localization while using an ensemble of half the size (48 vs 96 members). © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

Dempsey F.,Environment Canada
Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society | Year: 2013

Frank Dempsey suggests that various remote-sensing, analysis, and forecasting methods allow anticipation of the harmful increases in airborne fine particulates and ozone pollution caused by the plumes of distant fires. The recognition and forecasting of trajectories of smoke plumes from active fire will be beneficial for anticipating and predicting potential effects on air quality in eastern North America. A case highlights a case where distinct increases in concentrations of fine particles and O3closely correlated with the plume from a distant wildfire, have been observed in routinely collected air quality observations in Ontario's air monitoring network. The specific data that indicate detection of smoke from northern sources are the air quality observations from various locations in southern Ontario. Several more examples have also been presented to demonstrate the benefits of recognition and forecasting of trajectories of smoke plumes in anticipating and predicting potential effects on air quality. Source

Strawbridge K.B.,Environment Canada
Atmospheric Measurement Techniques | Year: 2013

Lidar has the ability to detect the complex vertical structure of the atmosphere and can therefore identify the existence and extent of aerosols with high spatial and temporal resolution, making it well suited for understanding atmospheric dynamics and transport processes. Environment Canada has developed a portable, autonomous lidar system that can be monitored remotely and operated continuously except during precipitation events. The lidar, housed in a small trailer, simultaneously emits two wavelengths of laser light (1064 nm and 532 nm) at energies of approximately 150 mJ/pulse/wavelength and detects the backscatter signal at 1064 nm and both polarizations at 532 nm. For laser energies of this magnitude, the challenge resides in designing a system that meets the airspace safety requirements for autonomous operations. Through the combination of radar technology, beam divergence, laser cavity interlocks and using computer log files, this risk was mitigated. A Continuum Inlite small footprint laser is the backbone of the system because of three design criteria: requiring infrequent flash lamp changes compared to previous Nd :YAG Q-switch lasers, complete software control capability and a built-in laser energy monitoring system. A computer-controlled interface was designed to monitor the health of the system, adjust operational parameters and maintain a climate-controlled environment. Through an Internet connection, it also transmitted the vital performance indicators and data stream to allow the lidar profile data for multiple instruments from near ground to 15 km, every 10 s, to be viewed, in near real-time via a website. The details of the system design and calibration will be discussed and the success of the instrument as tested within the framework of a national lidar network dubbed CORALNet (Canadian Operational Research Aerosol Lidar Network). In addition, the transport of a forest fire plume across the country will be shown as evidenced by the lidar network, HYSPLIT back trajectories, MODIS imagery and CALIPSO overpasses. © Author(s) 2013. Source

Arora V.K.,Environment Canada | Montenegro A.,St. Francis Xavier University
Nature Geoscience | Year: 2011

Afforestation, the conversion of croplands or marginal lands into forests, results in the sequestration of carbon. As a result, afforestation is considered one of the key climate-change mitigation strategies available to governments by the United Nations1. However, forests are also less reflective than croplands, and the absorption of incoming solar radiation is greater over afforested areas. Afforestation can therefore result in net climate warming, particularly at high latitudes2-5. Here, we use a comprehensive Earth system model to assess the climate-change mitigation potential of five afforestation scenarios, with afforestation carried out gradually over a 50-year period. Complete (100%) and partial (50%) afforestation of the area occupied at present by crops leads to a reduced warming of around 0.45 and 0.25 °C respectively, during the period 2081-2100. Temperature benefits associated with more realistic global afforestation efforts, where less than 50% of cropland is converted, are expected to be even smaller, indicating that afforestation is not a substitute for reduced greenhouse-gas emissions. We also show that warming reductions per unit afforested area are around three times higher in the tropics than in the boreal and northern temperate regions, suggesting that avoided deforestation and continued afforestation in the tropics are effective forest-management strategies from a climate perspective. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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