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Abbas M.R.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ahmad B.B.,University of Technology Malaysia | Abbas T.R.,Environment and Water Directorate
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2014

On 15 August 2010, a phenomenal underground fire was experienced for the first time in the western province of Al Najaf in Iraq. During the incidence, longitudinal cracks and small holes were observed in the ground emitting white smoke. These cracks and emitted smoke extended and were observed up to over 5,000 m2 of space. These observations continued from 15 August to 30 October 2010. In this study, the authors investigated the possibility of thermal jump in the studied area during the observation period using MODIS data. Here, MODIS data detected two significant thermal activity jumps in the study area from 15 August 2010 to 27 September 2010. The result further indicated that the combustion process in the Al-Ruhban area is likely due to natural causes, combustion of hydrocarbon gases emitted or leaked from oil pools; and these fires may continue to incandescent and slow creep until the end of the source material causing fire or facing hard groundwater levels. © 2014 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Faisal A.A.H.,University of Baghdad | Abbas T.R.,Environment and Water Directorate | Jassam S.H.,University of Baghdad
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

The possibility of using zero-valent iron (ZVI) as permeable reactive barrier (PRB) to remove zinc from a contaminated groundwater was investigated. Batch equilibrium tests were carried out. The effects of many parameters such as contact time between adsorbate and adsorbent (0–240 min), initial pH of the solution (4–8), sorbent dosage (1–12 g/100 ml), initial metal concentration (50–250 mg/l), and agitation speed (0–250 rpm) were studied. The best values of these parameters that achieve the maximum removal efficiency of Zn+2 (=91%) were 3 h, 5, 10 g/100 ml, 50 mg/l, and 200 rpm, respectively. Langmuir isotherm model gives better fit for the sorption data of Zn+2 ion by ZVI than Freundlich model under the studied conditions. Finite difference method and COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5a software, which is based on finite element method, were used to simulate the one-dimensional equilibrium transport of zinc through sandy aquifer with and without presence of PRB. The predicted and experimental results proved that the PRB plays a potential role in the restriction of the contaminant plume migration. A reasonable agreement between these results was recognized with root mean squared error not exceeded the 0.1487. © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Abbas R.R.,University of Sheffield | Abbas R.R.,University of Kufa | Richardson T.H.,University of Sheffield | Hobson A.,University of Sheffield | And 2 more authors.
Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects | Year: 2014

The effect of annealing time on the optical properties of dodecanethiol encapsulated gold (C12-Au) nanoparticles with 3.04nm in diameter was studied. Monolayer and multilayer films were prepared by the Langmuir-Schafer (LS) deposition method. The films' morphology and their optical properties were investigated by AFM and absorption spectroscopy respectively. The growth of elongated structures was observed in the as-deposited gold films especially at higher thicknesses with dimensions of about 4nm in thickness and 100 to 400nm in length and increased with the number of layers. The change in the films' morphology with annealing time was very significant at higher thicknesses. Annealed films showed sharp surface plasmon (SP) absorption peak, which increased with increasing annealing time. Annealing for 30min caused redshift in the SP absorption peak for all thicknesses, however, a blue shift was observed when the films were annealed for 60min. No further significant change in the SP position was observed at higher annealing time. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

Dixon M.A.,Environment and Water Directorate | Abbas T.R.,Environment and Water Directorate
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

A novel aerated magnetic biofilm reactor is introduced in this study. The biofilm has a high biomass concentration and can be formed instantaneously. A 1 L laboratory-scale bioreactor packed with 160 flat ring magnets as biofilm carriers was used. Each piece of magnet has 1.6 cm outer diameter, 0.7 cm inner diameter, and 0.3 cm thickness. Magnetic field intensity at the surface of the magnet was 700 gauss. The bioreactor was seeded with flocculated activated sludge supplemented with Fe3O4 powder. Calculated organic loading rate per unit volume of the reactor and unit area of the packing material was 1.5 g COD/L d and 17.44 g COD/m2d, respectively. The effluent TSS was relatively very low and can be easily separated from water by a small gravity clarifier. The efficiency of nitrogen removal was much better for the thick magnetic biofilm reactor than of a control suspended growth bioreactor. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification during aerobic phase was observed. These features make this technology an attractive and promising one to be used for intensive nitrogen removal along with organic load removal. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Al-Rubaie M.S.,Environment and Water Directorate | Dixon M.A.,Environment and Water Directorate | Abbas T.R.,Environment and Water Directorate
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2015

Bench-scale simulation of flocculated magnetic separation (FMS) technology was performed using a jar-tester to treat produced water from four Iraqi oilfields. The results revealed that effluent water with low oil content and suspended solid can be achieved. Settling time for FMS is several times less than that of conventional process. These features make FMS, followed by a polishing oil removal step, such as nutshell filters, attractive to treat Iraqi produced water for injection purpose. © 2013, Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved. Source

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