Environment and Plant Team

Seoul, South Korea

Environment and Plant Team

Seoul, South Korea

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Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Choi S.K.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Chung S.H.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology | Kim J.S.,Korea University | Choi J.H.,Korea University
International Journal of Automotive Technology | Year: 2011

Experimental and numerical analyses of laminar diffusion flames were performed to identify the effect of fuel mixing on soot formation in a counterflow burner. In this experiment, the volume fraction, number density, and particle size of soot were investigated using light extinction/scattering systems. The experimental results showed that the synergistic effect of an ethylene-propane flame is appreciable. Numerical simulations showed that the benzene (C6H6) concentration in mixture flames was higher than in ethylene-base flames because of the increase in the concentration of propargyl radicals. Methyl radicals were found to play an important role in the formation of propargyl, and the recombination of propargyl with benzene was found to lead to an increase in the number density for cases exhibiting synergistic effects. These results imply that methyl radicals play an important role in soot formation, particularly with regard to the number density. © 2011 The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


A dual loop waste heat recovery power generation system that comprises an upper trilateral cycle and a lower organic Rankine cycle, in which discharged exhaust gas heat is recovered and re-used for propulsion power, was theoretically applied to an internal combustion engine for propulsion in a 6800 TEU container ship. The thermodynamic properties of this exhaust gas heat recovery system, which vary depending on the boundary temperature between the upper and lower cycles, were also investigated. The results confirmed that this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system exhibited a maximum net output of 2069.8kW, and a maximum system efficiency of 10.93% according to the first law of thermodynamics and a maximum system exergy efficiency of 58.77% according to the second law of thermodynamics. In this case, the energy and exergy efficiencies of the dual loop system were larger than those of the single loop trilateral cycle. Further, in the upper trilateral cycle, the volumetric expansion ratio of the turbine could be considerably reduced to an adequate level to be employed in the practical system. When this dual loop exhaust gas heat recovery power generation system was applied to the main engine of the container ship, which was actually in operation, a 2.824% improvement in propulsion efficiency was confirmed in comparison to the case of a base engine. This improvement in propulsion efficiency resulted in about 6.06% reduction in the specific fuel oil consumption and specific CO2 emissions of the main engine during actual operation. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Kim Y.M.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2012

The thermodynamic characteristics of a trilateral cycle with water as a working fluid have been theoretically investigated for an electric generation system to recover the waste heat of the exhaust gas from a diesel engine used for the propulsion of a large ship. As a result, when a heat source was given, the efficiencies of energy and exergy were maximized by the specific conditions of the pressure and mass flow rate for the working fluid at the turbine(expander) inlet. In this case, as the condensation temperature increased, the volume expansion ratio of the turbine could be reduced properly; however, the exergy loss of the heat source and exergy destruction of the condenser increased. Therefore, in order to recover the waste exergy from the topping cycle, the combined cycle with a bottoming cycle such as an organic Rankine cycle, which is utilized at relatively low temperatures, was found to be useful. ©2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Kim Y.M.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2012

The thermodynamic efficiency characteristics of R245fa and water as working fluids have been analyzed for the electricity generation system applying the Rankine cycle to recover the waste heat of the exhaust gas from a diesel engine for the propulsion of a large ship. The theoretical calculation results showed that the cycle, system, and total efficiencies were improved as the turbine inlet pressure was increased for R245fa at a fixed mass flow rate. In addition, the net work rate generated by the Rankine cycle was elevated with increasing turbine inlet pressure. In the case of water, however, the maximum system efficiencies were demonstrated at relatively small ratios of mass flow rate and turbine inlet pressure, respectively, compared to those of R245fa. The optimized values of the net power of the cycle, system efficiency, and total efficiency for water had relatively large values compared to those of R245fa. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Kim Y.M.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2012

The exergy characteristics for R245fa and water working fluids have been analyzed for an electric generation system utilizing the Rankine cycle to recover heat from the wasted exhaust gas from a diesel' engine used for the propulsion of a large ship. The theoretical calculation results showed that the efficiencies of exergy and system exergy improved as the turbine inlet pressure increased for R245fa at a fixed mass flow rate. Furthermore, the exergy destruction rates of the condenser and evaporator were relatively larger than those in other components. The exergy efficiency of the system increased with increasing mass flow rate. For a water working fluid, although the exergy destruction rate of the evaporator was similar to that for R245fa, the exergy loss rate varied significantly in response to variations in the pressure and mass flow rates at the turbine inlet. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Kim Y.M.,Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2013

The thermodynamic characteristics of a combined cycle applied with a topping cycle such as a trilateral cycle at relatively high temperatures and a bottoming cycle such as an organic Rankine cycle at relatively low temperatures have been theoretically investigated. This is an electric generation system used to recover the waste heat of the exhaust gas from a diesel engine used for the propulsion of a large ship. As a result, when the boundary temperature between the topping and the bottoming cycles increased, the system efficiencies of energy and exergy were simultaneously maximized because the total exergy destruction rate (£Ed) and exergy loss (£) decreased, respectively. In the case of a marine diesel engine, the waste heat recovery electric generation system can be utilized for additional propulsion power, and the propulsion efficiency was found to be improved by an average of 9.17 % according to the engine load variation, as compared to the case with only the base engine. In this ease, the specific fuel consumption and specific C02 emission of the diesel engine were reduced by an average of 8.4% and 8.37%, respectively. © 2013 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Chung S.H.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Fuel | Year: 2013

An experimental study was conducted on the effects of initial temperature variation on the stabilization characteristics of turbulent nonpremixed flames in coflow jets of methane fuel diluted by nitrogen. The typical behavior seen in the study showed that the liftoff height increased linearly with the jet velocity regardless of the initial temperature in the turbulent regime. Two models were investigated for predicting liftoff heights in the methane jets: the premixed flame model and the large-scale mixing model. For the premixed flame model, the liftoff heights in the methane jets were accurately predicted using the thermal diffusivity of the unburned gas temperature αst,0, instead of that of the burned gas temperature αst,b. For the large-scale mixing model, however, the prediction of liftoff heights differed slightly for the various fuel mole fractions. However, when considering the initial fuel mass fraction YF,0, the liftoff heights were successfully predicted. This result implies that the characteristics of the unburned fuel-air mixture play a crucial role for flame stabilization in coflow jets for a variety of initial conditions. In the turbulent regime, the blowout velocity and the liftoff height at blowout could be accurately predicted by the two models based on a consideration of the physical properties and the buoyancy effect of the initial temperature variation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Choin B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Chung S.H.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2012

Autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets with hydrogen-enriched methane fiiels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. The results showed that the autoignited lifted flame of the methane/hydrogen mixture, which had an initial temperature over 920 K, the threshold temperature for autoignition in methane jets, exhibited features typical of either a tribrachial edge or mild combustion depending on fuel mole fraction and the liftoff height increased with jet velocity. The liftoff height in the hydrogen-assisted autoignition regime was dependent on the square of the adiabatic ignition delay time for the addition of small amounts of hydrogen, as was the case for pure methane jets. When the initial temperature was below 920 K, where the methane fuel did not show autoignition behavior, the flame was autoignited by the addition of hydrogen, which is an ignition improver. The liftoff height demonstrated a unique feature in that it decreased nonlinearly as the jet velocity increased. The differential diffusion of hydrogen is expected to play a crucial role in the decrease in the liftoff height with increasing jet velocity. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team | Chung S.H.,King Abdullah University of Science and Technology
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2012

The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.


Choi B.C.,Environment and Plant Team
Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers, B | Year: 2011

Autoignition characteristic is an important parameter for designing diesel or PCCI engines. In particular, diesel spray flames are lifted from the nozzle and the initial flame is formed by an autoignition phenomenon. The lifted nature of diesel spray flames influences soot formation, since air will be entrained into the spray core by the entrainment of air between the nozzle region and the lifted flame base. The objective of the present study was to identify the effect of heat loss on the ignition delay time by adopting a coflow jet as a model problem. Methane (CH4), ethylene (C2H4), ethane (C2H6), propene (C3H6), propane (C3H8), and normal butane (n-C4H10) fuels were injected into high temperature air, and the liftoff height was measured experimentally. As the result, a correlation was determined between the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flame and the ignition delay time considering the heat loss to the atmosphere. © 2011 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

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