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Guo L.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Han L.,BGI Shenzhen | Yang L.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Zeng H.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: The asexual fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) causing vascular wilt disease is one of the most devastating pathogens of banana (Musa spp.). To understand the molecular underpinning of pathogenicity in Foc, the genomes and transcriptomes of two Foc isolates were sequenced. Methodology/Principal Findings: Genome analysis revealed that the genome structures of race 1 and race 4 isolates were highly syntenic with those of F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici strain Fol4287. A large number of putative virulence associated genes were identified in both Foc genomes, including genes putatively involved in root attachment, cell degradation, detoxification of toxin, transport, secondary metabolites biosynthesis and signal transductions. Importantly, relative to the Foc race 1 isolate (Foc1), the Foc race 4 isolate (Foc4) has evolved with some expanded gene families of transporters and transcription factors for transport of toxins and nutrients that may facilitate its ability to adapt to host environments and contribute to pathogenicity to banana. Transcriptome analysis disclosed a significant difference in transcriptional responses between Foc1 and Foc4 at 48 h post inoculation to the banana 'Brazil' in comparison with the vegetative growth stage. Of particular note, more virulence-associated genes were up regulated in Foc4 than in Foc1. Several signaling pathways like the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 mediated invasion growth pathway, the FGA1-mediated G protein signaling pathway and a pathogenicity associated two-component system were activated in Foc4 rather than in Foc1. Together, these differences in gene content and transcription response between Foc1 and Foc4 might account for variation in their virulence during infection of the banana variety 'Brazil'. Conclusions/Significance: Foc genome sequences will facilitate us to identify pathogenicity mechanism involved in the banana vascular wilt disease development. These will thus advance us develop effective methods for managing the banana vascular wilt disease, including improvement of disease resistance in banana. Copyright: © 2014 Reekie et al.


Zhang L.H.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Zhang L.H.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical Crops | Li M.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li M.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical Crops | And 11 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

In order to screen alternative fungicides for carbendazim-resistant Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. from mango (Mangifera indica L.), the toxicity of 23 fungicides to four isolates of carbendazim-resistant and four isolates of carbendazim-sensitive C. gloeosporioides was tested by mycelium growth rate methods. Results were analyzed using the EC50 value, the EC90 value and cross-resistance to each other. Prochloraz was most toxic to C. gloeosporioides, with the average values of 0.04 mg/L (EC 50 value) and 0.21 mg/L (EC90 value), followed by difenoconazole, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, flusilazole, flusilazole· famoxadone, tebuconazole, myclobutanil and polyoxin. These fungicides had no cross resistance with carbendazim, suggesting that they could be the first choice to control mango anthracnose. In addition, the average EC50 and EC90 values of triadimefon, iprodione, tricyclazole and mancozeb were lower as compared to the other fungicides, and these fungicides could also be a choice to control mango anthracnose. The selected isolates of C. gloeosporioides showed cross resistance among benzimidazole fungicides, between benzimidazole fungicides and diniconazole, among azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and myclobutanil·kresoximmethyl, among azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and triadimefon, between difenoconazole and flusilazole·famoxadone. Chlorothalonil had negative cross resistance with azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and myclobutanil·kresoxim-methyl. Hymexazol had negative cross resistance with azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl myclobutanil ·kresoxim-methyl and triadimefon. Therefore, these chosen fungicides are recommended for use to avoid the resistance of carbendazim-resistant C. gloeosporioides. © ISHS 2013.


Jia L.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology | Xiao J.-H.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology | Xiong T.-L.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology | Niu L.-M.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Huang D.-W.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China
Insect Molecular Biology | Year: 2016

Transformer (tra) is the key gene that turns on the sex-determination cascade in Drosophila melanogaster and in some other insects. The honeybee Apis mellifera has two duplicates of tra, one of which (complementary sex determiner, csd) is the primary signal for complementary sex-determination (CSD), regulating the other duplicate (feminizer). Two tra duplicates have been found in some other hymenopteran species, resulting in the assumption that a single ancestral duplication of tra took place in the Hymenoptera. Here, we searched for tra homologues and pseudogenes in the Hymenoptera, focusing on five newly published hymenopteran genomes. We found three tra copies in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Further evolutionary and expression analyses also showed that the two duplicates (Csoltra-B and Csoltra-C) are under positive selection, and have female-specific expression, suggesting possible sex-related functions. Moreover, Aculeata species exhibit many pseudogenes generated by lineage-specific duplications. We conclude that phylogenetic reconstruction and pseudogene screening provide novel evidence supporting the hypothesis of independent duplications rather an ancestral origin of multiple tra paralogues in the Hymenoptera. The case of C. solmsi is the first example of a non-CSD species with duplicated tra, contrary to the previous assumption that derived tra paralogues function as the CSD locus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.


Yin X.M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu B.Y.,Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology | Zheng W.,Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology | Wang Z.,Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 14 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

The infection of banana by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) can result in variable disease development, ranging from no symptoms to severe rotting and wilting. Understanding the infection process of Foc is a prerequisite for effective control and management of this disease. To visualise the infection process, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of tropical race 4 of Foc and characterised early events in infection and disease development in Cavendish plantlets. With fluorescence microscopy, the labelled strain was observed to infect roots, colonise the root mesocotyl and, finally, the plant pseudostem. These studies indicated that the preferential colonisation sites on the root surface were grooves along the junction of the epidermal cells. This resulted in mosaic patterns of infection that developed after specific epidermal and cortical cells were infected by intercellular hyphae, while surrounding cells remained free of fungus. Finally, hyphae developed inside xylem vessels of fully colonised, rotted roots. Specific infection structures, such as appressoria, were not observed. These observations clarify events that occur after Cavendish is infected by this important pathogen and provide new clues to explore infection mechanisms of Foc. More detailed knowledge of the host-pathogen interaction could help develop more efficient ways to control the disease.


Hu M.J.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Hu M.J.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical Crops | Hu M.J.,Key Laboratory for Detection and Monitoring of Invasive Pest of Tropical Agriculture and Forestry | Gao Z.Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | And 11 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2013

86 isolates of Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., causing mango stem end rot, were obtained from 3 regions in Hainan province of China and tested for their resistance to carbendazim (MBC) in laboratory. The toxicity of 23 fungicides to 2 isolates of carbendazim-resistant and 2 isolates of carbendazim-sensitive B. theobromae was tested by mycelium growth rate methods, and analyzed by the EC50 value, the EC90 value and the cross-resistance to each other. The results showed that the carbendazim-resistant isolates had been found in Danzhou, Ledong and Sanya, Hainan province. 10 fungicides including sporgon, propiconazole, flusilazole, prochloraz, iprodione, difenoconazole, tebuconazole, myclobutanil, pyraclostrobin and validamycin A were recommended for choices for controlling mango stem end rot disease. In addition, the fungicides of chlorothalonil and mancozeb could also be chosen. The resistance to thiophanate-methyl, kresoximmethyl and diniconazole was appeared in the tested pathogens. In cross-resistance test, the results showed that carbendazim, kresoxim-methyl and diniconazole had crossresistance each other, while kresoxim-methyl and validamycin A had negative crossresistance each other. To avoid the resistance of the pathogen to the fungicides, such fungicides should be used by turns. © ISHS 2013.


Deng X.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Wu C.Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Liu J.K.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li Q.F.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2014

Using pot experiment to study the influence of three organic fertilizers of chicken manure compost(CM), activated sludge(AS) and cassava residue compost(CR) on the degradation of p, p′-DDT in clay soil under flooding conditions. The results showed that the two kinds of organic fertilizers of AS and CM could effectively accelerate the degradation of p, p′-DDT in clay soils, and the degradation effect was the best when adding 2% CM or 3% AS in clay soil. However, the influence of CR on the degradation of p, p′-DDT was not obvious. The degradation rates of P, P′-DDT in the treatment on adding 1% AS were from zero to 7.4% higher than that of 1% CM. The degradation rates of P, P′-DDT in the treatment on adding 2% AS were from zero to 11.3% higher than that of 2% CM. The degradation rates of P, P′-DDT in the treatment on adding 3% AS were from 8.3% to 27.4% higher than that of 3% CM. which indicated that AS is more conducive to the degradation of p, p′-DDT in the clay. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Deng X.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Cao E.H.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Wu C.Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Liu J.K.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li Q.F.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

The pot experiment was carried out to study the effects of eight functional strains on growth promotion of tomato and resistance to tomato bacterial wilt. The results indicated that the two strains both Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus megaterium could significantly increase the plant height of tomato; the two strains of Paenibacillus azotoformans and Bacillus laterosporus could significantly improve the stem diameter of tomato; the three strains of Paenibacillus polymyxa, Bacillus laterosporus and Paenibacillus azotoformans could significantly increase the average leaf area and chlorophyll contents of Tomato; the four strains of Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Paenibacillus polymyxa and Streptomyces microflavus could obviously inhibit occurrence of tomato bacterial wilt. All above results indicated that Paenibacillus polymyxa could not only significantly increase the height, the average leaf area and chlorophyll content of tomato plant, but also could obviously reduce the incidence of tomato bacterial wilt. So this strain can be used as one of core strains to construct multifunctional composite inoculants. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Deng X.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li Q.F.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Wu C.Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Liu J.K.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute
Advanced Materials Research | Year: 2013

Banana fusarium wilt is one of the soil-borne diseases of seriously threat to banana production in the world. However, there is no effective method for prevention. The objective was providing theoretical basis for field diagnosis of banana fusarium wilt. Thirty rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil samples were collected from three typical banana plots (Jianfeng, Shiyuetian, Chongpo) infected by banana fusarium wilt. Applying dilution plate method to estimate the pathogenic number, fourteen soil physicochemical properties and nutrient concentrations were chemically determined. Results showed that pathogenic number and nutrient concentrations in rhizosphere soil were higher than non-rhizosphere soil, the pathogenic number and pH in rhizosphere soils significantly increased with increasing of plant infection grades, while the concentrations of available P and B decreased with increasing of plant infection grades. It was concluded that infection degree of banana plants was mainly determined by pathogenic number, pH and the concentrations of available P and B. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.


Zhang X.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Zhang H.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Xie Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Pu J.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2011

In 2008, the status of Fusarium wilt on banana, caused by subtropical Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, in Hainan Province, China was monitored. The disease was found in 14 out of 18 cities and counties. The monitored area was 687.4 ha, out of which 53.8 ha were affected with a total of 33,268 infected banana plants. The disease affected 'Baxijiao' (AAA), 'Williams' (AAA), 'Fenjiao' (ABB) and 'Gaogangongjiao' (AA). Diseased plants were eradicated and replaced by paddy rice, corn or disease-resistant cultivars, like 'Aigangongjiao' (AA), 'Nongke No. 1' (AAA), 'Guangfen No. 2' (ABB) and others, as a control measure. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that twelve Foc strains isolated from 'Fenjiao' belonged to race 1, and six Foc strains from 'Baxijiao' were race 4. The disease severity index varied among strains. RAPD analysis could differentiate geographic origins of strains of race 1 and race 4, approximately distinguish strains of race 1 and race 4. The twelve race 1 strains isolated from 'Fenjiao' were assigned to VCG 1, and the six race 4 strains isolated from 'Baxijiao' were assigned to VCG 2, showing that vegetative compatibility groups of Foc strains are related to race (Note: VCG 1 and 2 codes were established by the research team, because the nit testers for VCG analyses of Foc were not available).


Li L.,South China Agricultural University | Li L.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Zeng L.,South China Agricultural University | Liang G.,South China Agricultural University
Pest Management Science | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of methoprene can vary with surface substrates, application methods and environmental conditions. The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of temperature and grain type on the long-term persistence and efficacy of methoprene in controlling Rhyzoperthadominica from Guangzhou, China. RESULTS: Methoprene applied at 1mgkg-1 caused>90% suppression of F1 adult progeny of R.dominica for 150-270days. Temperature and grain type both influenced the long-term persistence of methoprene. Overall multivariate analysis of variance showed that the order of progeny reduction at different temperatures (°C) was: 24>28>32>36; the order of the progeny reduction on the different grains was: paddy>wheat and maize. CONCLUSION: The results of our experiments show the maximum effect of methoprene for R.dominica control at 24°C on paddy. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

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