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Li L.,South China Agricultural University | Li L.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Zeng L.,South China Agricultural University | Liang G.,South China Agricultural University
Pest Management Science

BACKGROUND: The efficacy of methoprene can vary with surface substrates, application methods and environmental conditions. The objectives of the present study were to examine the effects of temperature and grain type on the long-term persistence and efficacy of methoprene in controlling Rhyzoperthadominica from Guangzhou, China. RESULTS: Methoprene applied at 1mgkg-1 caused>90% suppression of F1 adult progeny of R.dominica for 150-270days. Temperature and grain type both influenced the long-term persistence of methoprene. Overall multivariate analysis of variance showed that the order of progeny reduction at different temperatures (°C) was: 24>28>32>36; the order of the progeny reduction on the different grains was: paddy>wheat and maize. CONCLUSION: The results of our experiments show the maximum effect of methoprene for R.dominica control at 24°C on paddy. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Jia L.-Y.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology | Xiao J.-H.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology | Xiong T.-L.,Key Laboratory of Zoological Systematics and EvolutionInstitute of Zoology | Niu L.-M.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Huang D.-W.,Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijing China
Insect Molecular Biology

Transformer (tra) is the key gene that turns on the sex-determination cascade in Drosophila melanogaster and in some other insects. The honeybee Apis mellifera has two duplicates of tra, one of which (complementary sex determiner, csd) is the primary signal for complementary sex-determination (CSD), regulating the other duplicate (feminizer). Two tra duplicates have been found in some other hymenopteran species, resulting in the assumption that a single ancestral duplication of tra took place in the Hymenoptera. Here, we searched for tra homologues and pseudogenes in the Hymenoptera, focusing on five newly published hymenopteran genomes. We found three tra copies in the fig wasp Ceratosolen solmsi. Further evolutionary and expression analyses also showed that the two duplicates (Csoltra-B and Csoltra-C) are under positive selection, and have female-specific expression, suggesting possible sex-related functions. Moreover, Aculeata species exhibit many pseudogenes generated by lineage-specific duplications. We conclude that phylogenetic reconstruction and pseudogene screening provide novel evidence supporting the hypothesis of independent duplications rather an ancestral origin of multiple tra paralogues in the Hymenoptera. The case of C. solmsi is the first example of a non-CSD species with duplicated tra, contrary to the previous assumption that derived tra paralogues function as the CSD locus. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society. Source

Yin X.M.,Chinese Academy of Sciences | Xu B.Y.,Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology | Zheng W.,Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology | Wang Z.,Institute of Tropical Bioscience and Biotechnology | And 14 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae

The infection of banana by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) can result in variable disease development, ranging from no symptoms to severe rotting and wilting. Understanding the infection process of Foc is a prerequisite for effective control and management of this disease. To visualise the infection process, we used a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged strain of tropical race 4 of Foc and characterised early events in infection and disease development in Cavendish plantlets. With fluorescence microscopy, the labelled strain was observed to infect roots, colonise the root mesocotyl and, finally, the plant pseudostem. These studies indicated that the preferential colonisation sites on the root surface were grooves along the junction of the epidermal cells. This resulted in mosaic patterns of infection that developed after specific epidermal and cortical cells were infected by intercellular hyphae, while surrounding cells remained free of fungus. Finally, hyphae developed inside xylem vessels of fully colonised, rotted roots. Specific infection structures, such as appressoria, were not observed. These observations clarify events that occur after Cavendish is infected by this important pathogen and provide new clues to explore infection mechanisms of Foc. More detailed knowledge of the host-pathogen interaction could help develop more efficient ways to control the disease. Source

Zhang L.H.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Zhang L.H.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | Li M.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li M.,Key Laboratory of Integrated Pest Management on Tropical crops | And 11 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae

In order to screen alternative fungicides for carbendazim-resistant Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. from mango (Mangifera indica L.), the toxicity of 23 fungicides to four isolates of carbendazim-resistant and four isolates of carbendazim-sensitive C. gloeosporioides was tested by mycelium growth rate methods. Results were analyzed using the EC50 value, the EC90 value and cross-resistance to each other. Prochloraz was most toxic to C. gloeosporioides, with the average values of 0.04 mg/L (EC 50 value) and 0.21 mg/L (EC90 value), followed by difenoconazole, propiconazole, pyraclostrobin, flusilazole, flusilazole· famoxadone, tebuconazole, myclobutanil and polyoxin. These fungicides had no cross resistance with carbendazim, suggesting that they could be the first choice to control mango anthracnose. In addition, the average EC50 and EC90 values of triadimefon, iprodione, tricyclazole and mancozeb were lower as compared to the other fungicides, and these fungicides could also be a choice to control mango anthracnose. The selected isolates of C. gloeosporioides showed cross resistance among benzimidazole fungicides, between benzimidazole fungicides and diniconazole, among azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and myclobutanil·kresoximmethyl, among azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and triadimefon, between difenoconazole and flusilazole·famoxadone. Chlorothalonil had negative cross resistance with azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl and myclobutanil·kresoxim-methyl. Hymexazol had negative cross resistance with azoxystrobin, kresoxim-methyl myclobutanil ·kresoxim-methyl and triadimefon. Therefore, these chosen fungicides are recommended for use to avoid the resistance of carbendazim-resistant C. gloeosporioides. © ISHS 2013. Source

Deng X.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Li Q.F.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Wu C.Y.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute | Liu J.K.,Environment and Plant Protection Institute
Advanced Materials Research

Banana fusarium wilt is one of the soil-borne diseases of seriously threat to banana production in the world. However, there is no effective method for prevention. The objective was providing theoretical basis for field diagnosis of banana fusarium wilt. Thirty rhizosphere and non-rhizosphere soil samples were collected from three typical banana plots (Jianfeng, Shiyuetian, Chongpo) infected by banana fusarium wilt. Applying dilution plate method to estimate the pathogenic number, fourteen soil physicochemical properties and nutrient concentrations were chemically determined. Results showed that pathogenic number and nutrient concentrations in rhizosphere soil were higher than non-rhizosphere soil, the pathogenic number and pH in rhizosphere soils significantly increased with increasing of plant infection grades, while the concentrations of available P and B decreased with increasing of plant infection grades. It was concluded that infection degree of banana plants was mainly determined by pathogenic number, pH and the concentrations of available P and B. © (2013) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland. Source

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